Moreover Schraufnagel et al in n univariate analyses shown that

Moreover Schraufnagel et al. in n univariate analyses shown that complications, resection, prolonged length of stay and Belinostat cost death are more likely in patients admitted for ASBO and operated on the fourth day or later [30]. Non operative management There are no advantages with the use of long tube decompression compared with the use of nasogastric tubes (Level of Evidence 1b GoR A) [23, 31]. However early tube decompression, either with long or nasogastric tube, may be beneficial

(Level of Evidence 2b GoR C) in the initial management of non Epigenetics Compound Library supplier strangulating ASBO, in adjunct with fluid resuscitation and electrolytes imbalances correction. For challenging cases of ASBO, the long tube should be placed as soon as possible [24] more advisable by endoscopy, rather than by fluoroscopic guide [32]. The use of Gastrografin in ASBO is safe (in terms of morbidity and mortality) and reduces the need for surgery, the time to resolution of obstruction

and the hospital stay (Level of Evidence 1a GoR A) [16, 19, 33–35]. Nevertheless anaphylactoid reaction and lethal aspiration have been described [36]. Gastrografin may be administered on the dosage of 50–150 ml, either orally or via NGT and can be given both at immediately admission or after an attempt of initial traditional conservative treatment of 48 hours (Level of Evidence 1b GoR A). Regarding the therapeutic value of Gastrografin, some authors affirmed that water-soluble contrast reduces

the hospital stay but does not reduce the need for surgery [27, 37, 38], others has proven that is effective in both selleck reducing the need for surgery and shortening hospital stay, without differences in complications and mortality [28]. As further adjuncts needs to be mentioned that oral therapy with magnesium oxide, L. acidophilus and simethicone may hasten the resolution of conservatively treated partial ASBO and shorten the hospital stay (Level of Evidence 1b GoR A) [39]. To be thorough it has L-NAME HCl to be mentioned Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy, that appears to be beneficial in older patients with high anesthesiologic risk (Level of Evidence 2b GoR B). HBO therapy may be an option in the management of patients for whom surgery should be avoided [40]. Indication for delayed operation Usually NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours of adhesive SBO (Level of Evidence 2b GoR C) [41]. After 3 days without resolution, WSCA study or surgery is recommended (Level of Evidence 2b GoR C) [31]. If ileus persists more than 3 days and the drainage volume on day 3 is > 500 ml, surgery for ASBO is recommended (Level of Evidence 2b GoR C) [24]. With closely monitoring and in the absence of signs suggestive of complications, an observation period even longer than 10 days before proceeding to surgical intervention appears to be safe [42].

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