Another possible explanation is that the

Another possible explanation is that the relationship between OSAS and depression is indirect, mediated by a correlate of OSAS, such

as obesity. Together with age, obesity is the strongest risk factor for the development of OSAS.92-97 Obese individuals suffer body image dissatisfaction, discrimination, and psychosocial distress,98 and several studies have shown an increased prevalence of depression among obese subjects.99-101 The degree to which the severity of apnea and obesity contribute to the relationship between depressive Pazopanib FGFR symptoms and OSAS has recently been explored by Aloia et al.73 They found that depressive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical symptoms that are predominantly associated with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the somatic dimension of depression (such apathy, loss of energy, and irritability) were more strongly associated with apnea severity, whereas depressive symptoms associated with the cognitive dimension of depression (pessimism, feeling of failure, and self-dislike) were more strongly associated with obesity. In addition, gender appears to influence these relationships, since men and women with apnea manifest depressive symptoms differently. Men only showed a relationship between apnea severity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and somatic complaints,

and women only showed a relationship between obesity and the cognitive factor of depression. Pillar and Lavie68 also found gender differences in the clinical manifestations of OSAS, with Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical women selleck screening library scoring higher on depression and anxiety scales than men, independently of other factors. Those studies serve to stress the likely Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical complex nature of the relationship between depression and OSAS, and highlight the multiple potential etiologies of mood disorders in these patients. RLS and PLMS RLS is a condition in which patients at rest, especially in the evening and during the night, Carfilzomib report leg paresthesias

accompanied by an urge to move their legs. According to the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group102 obligatory features are: (i) a desire to move the extremities associated with discomfort; (ii) motor restlessness; (iii) worsening of symptoms at rest with relief with movement; and (iv) worsening of symptoms later in the day or at night. Up to 80% of patients with RLS present PLMS,103 and this phenomenon is considered to be a supportive criteria for the diagnostic of RLS. PLMS appears as repetitive episodes of muscle contraction, 0.5 to 5 s in duration, separated by intervals of 5 to 90 s.104 Isolated PLMS may also occur without complaints of RLS, leading to the diagnosis of PLMD.

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