It is thought that TI induced a short term reduction in ventilato

It is thought that TI induced a short term reduction in ventilatory efficiency, which appeared to be countered by a series of compensatory mechanisms that include increased ventilation rates, and maintenance of the primary stress response. TI remains one of the most enigmatic areas of biology for all taxa and further research into its underlying psychological, physiological

and neurological processes is recommended. (C) 2011 Elsevier BM. All rights reserved.”
“Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy is a continuum that ranges from mild discomfort to significant morbidity. Systematic assessment with the use of the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis/Nausea (PUQE) index and timely treatment using evidence-based protocols can decrease the time that many women spend using treatment recommendations that are inadequate. This article reviews the epidemiology

of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy, use of the PUQE index, and the evidence for specific nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment regimens. A protocol for clinical management is presented. J Midwifery Womens Health 2009; 54: 430-444 (C) 2009 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.”
“DeLong, J. M., Hodges, D. M., Prange, R. K., Forney, C. F., Toivenon, P. M. A., CHIR-99021 mouse Bishop, M. C., Elliot, M. L. and Jordan, M. A. 2011. The unique fatty acid and antioxidant composition of ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) fiddleheads. Can. J. Plant Sci. 91: 919-930. The purpose of this study was to investigate the health-promoting composition of ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) fiddlehead tissue by focussing on its fatty acid and antioxidant content and antioxidant activity. The curled crosiers (fiddleheads)

were harvested following emergence and before 10 cm growth from eight or nine sites in eastern Canada during 2008 and 2009. The crosiers were then refrigerated or kept on ice until cleaned, subsequently frozen in liquid nitrogen, and then stored at -85 degrees C. All tissue samples (except those used for ascorbate analysis) were freeze-dried, ground in a ball mill and stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed. The current study showed that fiddlehead tissue had an unusual SCH 900776 fatty acid composition including gamma-linolenic, dihomo-gamma-linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentanoeic acids. The concentration of the antioxidant compounds ascorbic acid [3.0 mu mol g(-1) dry weight (DW)], alpha- and gamma-tocopherol (314 and 80.8 mu g g(-1) DW, respectively) and alpha- and beta-carotene (43.8 and 122 mu g g(-1) DW, respectively) and the xanthophyll pigments violaxanthin (225 mu g g(-1) DW), zeaxanthin (127 mu g g(-1) DW) and lutein (238 mu g g(-1) DW) ranged from high to very high for green plant tissue. The phenolic compound content (51.6 mg gallic acid equiv.

In the present study, we found that GADM effectively

In the present study, we found that GADM effectively buy GSK2879552 inhibited cell proliferation and colony formation in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which was much stronger than that of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. GADM both concentration- and time-dependently mediated G1 cell

cycle arrest and significantly decreased the protein level of CDK2, CDK6, cycle D1, p-Rb and c-Myc in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, GADM obviously induced DNA fragmentation and cleavage of PARP which are the characteristics of apoptosis and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in MCF-7 cells. Besides, we also showed that GADM elicited DNA damage as measured by comet assay which is a sensitive method for DNA damage detection. gamma-H2AX, a marker of DNA damage, was also slightly up-regulated after treated with GADM for 6 h, suggesting that the G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by GADM may be partially resulted from GADM-induced DNA damage. These results have advanced our current understandings

of the anti-cancer mechanisms of GADM. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The aim of the study was to analyse the status of the genetic structure of two autochthonous Croatian Podolian breeds (Istrian cattle and Slavonian Syrmian Podolians). The study comprised 20 randomly selected blood samples of each cattle breed. The genotyping was performed on 11 microsatellites (TGLA227, BM2113, TGLA53, ETH10, SPS115, TGLA126, TGLA122, INRA23, ETH3, ETH225, BM1824) as recommended by International Society of Animal Prexasertib clinical trial Genetics Tariquidar and Food and Agriculture Organization. The procedure enabled the identification of 423 (96.14%) genotypes, indicating the validity of DNA analyses in blood samples and adequacy of the selected microsatellite markers. Likewise, there was the total number of 203 alleles with minimal differences among the studied groups. The differences (p > 0.05) were observed within the genotypes of the studied groups regarding the microsatellite

loci. The distribution of the genetic relationship was presented by Wright F coefficients. The F-IS had negative values for the TGLA 227 locus in both studied groups and for ETH3, ETH225 and BM1834 loci in the Slavonian Syrmian Podolians. This obtained data with relative high values of heterozygosity also shows a genetical influence of other breeds. Almost all F-IT values were appropriate (0.31905) as a result of excessive selection effects. The mean value of F-ST (0.07336) indicates that the average degree of genetic variability of the studied breeds was not significantly different despite certain differences in individual loci. The observed specific polymorphism of loci shows that the Istrian cattle and the Slavonian Syrmian Podolians have similar genetic characteristics, but also that there are certain differences between the breeds and even inter-breed differences.

13 mmol/L (-0 15 to -0 13

13 mmol/L (-0.15 to -0.13 selleck compound mmol/L; -0.41 mg/dl [-0.46 to -0.37 mg/dl]). These results were consistent across the subgroups defined by estimated GFR of <60 or >= 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), a serum phosphorus of >1.13 mmol/L (3.5 mg/dl) versus <= 1.13 mmol/L (3.5 mg/dl), the presence of clinical diabetes, or concomitant statin use.\n\nConclusions: We

have provided definitive evidence that once-daily ERN-L treatment causes a sustained 0.13-mmol/L (0.4-mg/dl) reduction in serum phosphorus concentrations, approximately 10% from baseline, which is unaffected by estimated GFR ranging from 30 to >= 90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (i.e., stages 1 through 3 chronic kidney disease). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 5: 582-589, 2010. doi: 10.2215/CJN.07341009″
“Anthrax edema toxin (ET), a powerful adenylyl cyclase, screening assay is an important virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis. Until recently, only a modest amount of research was performed to understand the role this toxin plays in the organism’s immune evasion strategy. A new wave of studies have begun to elucidate the effects this toxin has on a variety of host cells. While efforts have been made to illuminate the effect ET has on cells of the adaptive

immune system, such as T cells, the greatest focus has been on cells of the innate immune system, particularly the macrophage. Here we discuss the immunoevasive activities that ET exerts on macrophages, as well as new research on the effects of this toxin on B cells.”
“The time-course of alpha neurofeedback training (NFT) was

investigated in 18 healthy participants who received 15 sessions of training (eyes open), each consisting of three training periods (data are from Van Boxtel et al., 2012). Here we report on the within-and between-session training effects using multilevel analyses. Over sessions, total alpha power (8-12 Hz) increased up to the tenth session, after which low alpha power (8-10 Hz) remained at the same level, while high alpha power (10-12 Hz) decreased. Within each training session, total alpha power increased from the first to the second period, and then decreased again. This decrease, however, was caused by a decrease in high alpha power only; low alpha power remained up to the end of training. These effects are discussed in terms of Cytoskeletal Signaling inhibitor attention and motivation, and suggest different trainability for low and high alpha power. (C) 2013 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.”
“Prenatal environmental exposures are among the risk factors being explored for associations with autism. We applied a new procedure combining multiple scan cluster detection tests to identify geographically defined areas of increased autism incidence. This procedure can serve as a first hypothesis-generating step aimed at localized environmental exposures, but would not be useful for assessing widely distributed exposures, such as household products, nor for exposures from nonpoint sources, such as traffic.

“Purpose: To flesh out the ESUR guidelines for the standar

“Purpose: To flesh out the ESUR guidelines for the standardized interpretation of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) for the detection of prostate cancer and to present a graphic reporting scheme for improved communication of findings to urologists.\n\nMaterials and Methods: The ESUR has recently ON-01910 ic50 published a structured reporting system for mMRI of the prostate (PI-RADS). This system

involves the use of 5-point Likert scales for grading the findings obtained with different MRI techniques. The mMRI includes T2-weighted MRI, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and MR spectroscopy. In a first step, the fundamentals of technical implementation were determined by consensus, taking into account in particular the German-speaking community. Then, representative images were selected by

consensus on the basis of examinations of the three institutions. In addition, scoring intervals for an aggregated PI-RADS score were determined in see more consensus.\n\nResults: The multiparametric methods were discussed critically with regard to implementation and the current status. Criteria used for grading mMRI findings with the PI-RADS classification were concretized by succinct examples. Using the consensus table for aggregated scoring in a clinical setting, a diagnosis of suspected prostate cancer should be made if the PI-RADS score is 4 or higher (>= 10 points if 3 techniques are used or >= 13 points if 4 techniques are used). Finally, a graphic scheme was developed for communicating mMRI prostate findings.\n\nConclusion: Structured reporting according to the ESUR guidelines contributes to quality assurance by standardizing prostate mMRI, and it facilities the communication of findings to urologists.”
“Intraocular medulloepithelioma is a childhood tumor arising from the nonpigmented primitive ciliary neuroepithelium. Although rarer than retinoblastoma, it remains the second most common primary intraocular neoplasm in children. The rarity of intraocular medulloepithelioma

creates the challenge in establishing a clinical diagnosis, and radiologically the tumor is often confused with other intraocular masses.\n\nTo describe the clinical, PF-6463922 solubility dmso imaging and pathological features of intraocular medulloepithelioma with emphasis on the role of imaging to enable its differentiation from more common intraocular pathology.\n\nWe retrospectively analyzed the clinical, histopathological and imaging data of four children with intraocular medulloepithelioma.\n\nAll four children had medulloepithelioma arising from the ciliary body. The children were imaged with US (n = 3), MRI (n = 4), whole-body Tc-99m-MDP scintigraphy (n = 2) and CT (n = 1). All four children had enucleation of the involved eye. One tumor was a malignant teratoid variant, two tumors were malignant nonteratoid variants and one was a nonteratoid variant of uncertain malignant potential.

Three hundred-seventy-nine ANMVE patients undergoing surgery on a

Three hundred-seventy-nine ANMVE patients undergoing surgery on an emergency basis between May 1991 and December 2009 were eligible for the study. According to current criteria used for the differential Volasertib inhibitor diagnosis of shock, patients

were retrospectively assigned to one of three groups: group 1, no shock (n = 154), group 2, cardiogenic shock (CS [n = 118]), and group 3, septic shock (SS [n = 107]). Median follow-up was 69.8 months.\n\nResults. Early mortality was significantly higher in patients with SS (p < 0.001). At multivariable logistic regression analysis, compared with patients with CS, patients with SS had more than 3.8 times higher risk of death. That rose to more than 4 times versus patients without shock. In addition, patients with SS had 4.2 times and 4.3 times higher risk of complications compared with patients with CS and without

shock, respectively. Sepsis was also an independent predictor of prolonged artificial ventilation (p = 0.04) and stroke (p = 0.003) whereas CS was associated with a higher postoperative occurrence of low output syndrome and myocardial infarction (p < 0.001). No difference was detected between groups in 18-year survival, freedom from endocarditis, and freedom from reoperation.\n\nConclusions. Our study suggests that emergency surgery for ANMVE in patients with 4SC-202 supplier CS achieved satisfactory early and late results. In contrast, the presence of SS was linked to dismal early prognosis. Our findings need to be confirmed by further larger studies. (Ann Thorac Surg 2012;93:1469-76) (c) 2012 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons”
“With all the incredible progress in scientific research over the past two decades, the trigger of the majority of autoimmune disorders remains largely elusive. Research on the biology of T helper type 17 (T(H)17) cells over the last decade not only clarified previous observations of immune regulations and disease manifestations,

Smoothened Agonist but also provided considerable information on the signaling pathways mediating the effects of this lineage and its seemingly dual role in fighting the invading pathogens on one hand, and in frightening the host by inducing chronic inflammation and autoimmunity on the other hand. In this context, recent reports have implicated T(H)17 cells in mediating host defense as well as a growing list of autoimmune diseases in genetically-susceptible individuals. Herein, we summarize the current knowledge on T(H)17 in autoimmunity with emphasis on its differentiation factors and some mechanisms involved in initiating pathological events of autoimmunity. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“A DNA biosensor was constructed by immobilizing a 20-mer oligonucleotide probe and hybridizing it with its complementary oligomer on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles.

The method is developed using simplified but physically realistic

The method is developed using simplified but physically realistic assumptions on material constitutive properties and geometric compatibility conditions, and considered the contact forces and friction between helical wires. The results of the proposed method and several related issues are discussed and compared with those from experiments. These results show that the proposed

method is useful and applicable for predicting cable damping value and its variation with cable tension, length and type of the cables.”
“Background. This randomized double-blind study selleck inhibitor was designed to compare palonosetron with palonosetron-dexamethasone combination for prevention of post operative nausea and vomiting (PONY) in patients selleck undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. Eighty-four adult ASA 1-2 patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Group P patients received 0.075 mg palonosetron and group PD patients received 0.075 mg palonosetron and 8 mg dexamethasone intravenously before induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained with N2O-isoflurane in oxygen. All patients received port-site infiltration with bupivacaine and intravenous

didofenac for postoperative analgesia. Metodopramide was used as rescue antiemetic. Patients were observed for the incidence of PONY and requirement of rescue antiemetic for 48 h after surgery. Results. The complete response rate (no vomiting) was significantly higher in group DP as compared to group P between 0-24 h (P=0.004). 18 (42.9%) patients reported nausea and 14(33.3%) patients had vomiting in group P while

6 (14.4%) patients had nausea and 5 (11.9%) patients complained of vomiting in group DP during 0-24 h. Two patients in group P reported nausea while none in group PD during 24-48 h. No patient had vomiting in either of the groups between 24-48 h. The requirement of rescue antiemedc was also less in group DP as compared to group P. Patients in group DP required less postoperative analgesia and were more satisfied with PONY treatment than group P patients. Conclusion. The palonosetron-dexamethasone Citarinostat purchase combination was more effective as compared to only palonosetron for reducing PONY after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.”
“Episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of ataxia and dysarthria, due to mutations in the CACNA1A gene on chromosome 19 encoding voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. The aim of the present study was to explore whether axonal membrane properties, assessed using nerve excitability techniques, were abnormal in patients with EA-2.

However, in this case study, the model system tends to overestima

However, in this case study, the model system tends to overestimate the exposure

due to exposed vegetables. The second model was tested for nine children with contrasting exposure conditions. It managed to capture the blood levels for eight of them. In the last case, the exposure of the child by pathways not considered in the model may explain the failure of the model. The interest of this integrated model is to provide outputs with lower variance than the first model system, but further tests are necessary to conclude about its accuracy.”
“Madagascar’s Eupleridae carnivores are perhaps the least studied and most threatened family of Carnivora. high throughput screening assay Investigating potential direct and indirect competition among these native species and sympatric exotic carnivores is necessary to better direct conservation actions. From 2008 to 2013, we photographically surveyed a diverse rainforest landscape, comparing six native

and three exotic carnivores’ activity patterns throughout the diel cycle. BAY 63-2521 We used hierarchical Bayesian Poisson analysis to describe the activity patterns of Madagascar’s carnivore community, assessed effects of season and site on temporal activity patterns, and estimated coefficients of overlap between carnivore pairings to assess effects of body size and ecological niche on temporal overlap among native and exotic carnivores. We observed changes in temporal activity patterns across seasons particularly during the austral summer (hot-dry season) for four native and two exotic carnivores, including evidence of fossa Cryptoprocta ferox altering their temporal activity during their mating season (hot-dry season). We found evidence of high overlap between natives and exotics

indicating the potential for increased interactions and competition. The greatest overlap in temporal activity occurred between both ring-tail Galidia elegans and brown-tail vontsira Salanoia concolor and exotic dogs Canis familiaris. Cr.ferox, falanouc Eupleres goudotii and spotted fanaloka Fossa fossana also overlapped in activity with the nocturnal, exotic Indian Selleckchem Barasertib civet Viverricula indica. Cr.ferox avoided humans and Ca.familiaris across all seasons. Unexpectedly, carnivore body size and ecological niche were not important predictors of temporal overlap. Previous research has shown these native and exotic carnivores overlap spatially and these new findings of temporal overlap among native and exotic carnivores add urgency to the need to manage exotic carnivores across Madagascar.”
“Due to their particular way of life, dispersal of parasites is often mediated by their host’s biology. Dispersal distance is relevant for parasites because high degree of dispersal leads to high gene flow, which counters the rate of parasite local adaptation in the host populations. Parasites with complex life cycles need to exploit sequentially more than one host species to complete their life cycle.

Our analysis reveals that the conformational changes associated w

Our analysis reveals that the conformational changes associated with the catalytic functions of the kinase core are highly correlated with motions in the juxtamembrane (JM) and C-terminal tail, two flexible structural elements that play an active role in EGFR kinase activation and dimerization. In particular, the opening and closing of the ATP binding lobe relative to the substrate binding lobe is highly correlated with motions in the JM and

C-terminal tail, suggesting that ATP and substrate binding selleck screening library can be coordinated with dimerization through conformational changes in the JM and C-terminal tail. Our study pinpoints key residues involved in this conformational coupling, and provides new insights into the Nutlin-3 role of the JM and C-terminal tail segments in EGFR kinase functions. Proteins 2011; 79: 99-114. (C) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.”
“Purpose of review\n\nConstituents of tobacco smoke are prothrombotic

and atherogenic and causative factors in the development of coronary heart disease (CHD). Smoking cessation is the single most important intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality in smokers with CHD. This review presents contemporary information regarding treatments for smoking cessation in the setting of CHD.\n\nRecent findings\n\nThe beneficial effects of smoking cessation may be mediated by improvements in endothelial function. Failure to quit smoking in those with CHD is a typical consequence of nicotine addiction. Practical counseling and pharmacotherapy [nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and varenicline] are well tolerated and effective treatments for CHD patients attempting to quit smoking. Treatments initiated in hospital following a CHD-related event or procedure are more effective than those initiated outside the hospital setting. Extending medication use beyond the initial treatment phase is the most promising means of preventing relapse. Financial coverage BVD-523 clinical trial for smoking cessation pharmacotherapy improves quit rates. The routine provision of pharmacotherapy

and practical counseling in the CHD setting can be assured by implementing proven, systematic approaches to smoking cessation treatment.\n\nSummary\n\nSmoking cessation is a fundamental priority in smokers with CHD. Systematic approaches to ensure that cessation assistance is provided by clinicians and to improve cessation outcomes for smokers are effective and available.”
“The purpose of this study was to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) temperature imaging of the laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) comparing the proton resonance frequency (PRF) and T (1) thermometry methods. LITT was applied to a liver-mimicking acrylamide gel phantom. Temperature rise up to 70 A degrees C was measured using a MR-compatible fiber-optic thermometer. MR imaging was performed by a 1.

A total of 49 components were identified in the oils, alpha-pinen

A total of 49 components were identified in the oils, alpha-pinene and hexanal being

the major compounds. The three essential oils were also tested for their inhibitory activity of nine different methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by the agar disc diffusion method. The anti-MRSA activity of E. thorifolium oil, the most active of the three oils, was comparable with those of the reference antibiotic vancomycin and oregano oil, although somewhat lower.”
“The animal meal prohibition as a protein source with low ruminal degradability in ruminant nutrition, creates the need to seek alternatives, as legume seeds, however, its protein, have a high degradability, which could generate losses of nitrogen in the rumen. Other problem in the legume seeds is the content of antinutritional factors such as protease inhibitors, tannins, phenolic compounds, lectins and some others, could find more affect the digestibility. One alternative to decrease the degradability of the protein and / or decrease the activity of some antinutritional factors is the use of different technological treatments such as roasting. Microbial protein synthesis is dependent on the availability of nitrogen or amino acids and of the degradable carbohydrate content, or of content of Organic Matter

digestible and rumen degraded (OMDRD), and the synchronization in rumen degradation between protein and carbohydrates. If there are high amounts of degradable nitrogen or if the content and rate of carbohydrates degradation AZD9291 clinical trial in the rumen is reduced or not synchronized

with the degradation of protein, could be losses of nitrogen and / or energy in the rumen. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of proteins and carbohydrates from various seeds and grains, the effect of dry-roasted application on degradability behavior of seeds.”
“Mother-to-child infections cause congenital infection with disease and sequelae. To evaluate a state of maternal blood screening for mother-to-child infections in Japan, we for the first time conducted a nationwide survey on obstetric facilities where regular maternity checkups were carried out. A questionnaire assessment involved this website an annual number of deliveries, scale of facilities and a state of maternal blood screening for eight pathogens. A high rate (73.7%) of reply to the questionnaire was achieved from 1990 facilities, covering 75.1% of annual number of delivery in 2011. The performance rates of blood screening were more than 99% for rubella virus, Treponema pallidum, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1), hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus, while the rate was found to be only 4.5% for cytomegalovirus (CMV), and 48.5% for Toxoplasma gondii with large differences in regions.

2 to 40 mu g L-1 (r(2) > 0 99), and detection limits were in t

2 to 40 mu g L-1 (r(2) > 0.99), and detection limits were in the range from 0.062 to 0.21 mu g L-1. Real water samples were used for validating the method and recoveries of spiked samples were over the range from 82.0 to 100%. The results indicated that TiO2 nanotubes repesented an attractive alternative sorbent for the enrichment and trace analysis of such pollutants.”
“Acute cytotoxicity (neutral

red assay), AhR-mediated toxicity (CYP P450 1A induction potential EROD assay) and concentrations of PAHs were recorded in RTL-W1 cells to assess the ecotoxicological URMC-099 order potential of sediments from reservoirs along the Tiete River and the Pinheiros River (Brazil). Almost all sediments tested induced cytotoxicity and stimulated cytochrome P450-associated EROD activity. Toxicity increases from Tiete River spring to Sao Paulo city region and decreases towards downstream. A closer analysis of chemical measurements of PAHs and results from bioassay revealed that the PAHs analyzed could not explain more than 7% of the EROD-inducing potencies.

Results selleck kinase inhibitor confirm that most of the toxicity is due to the discharges of the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo. Moreover, they indicate additional sources of pollutants along the river course, which contribute to the degradation of each reservoir. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“To systematically review the literature about maternal and selleck screening library neonatal outcomes following induction of labor (IOL) and spontaneous labor (SL) in women with previous cesarean section (PCS). PubMed, Medline, EMBASE,

Cochrane library searches; January 2000-February 2013. Inclusion criteria: women attempting labor after PCS, singleton term pregnancies. Women undergoing IOL were compared with women in SL. Method for induction, mode of delivery, uterine rupture/dehiscence, post-partum hemorrhage, emergency hysterectomy and any maternal or neonatal morbidity and mortality were analyzed. MOOSE guidelines were followed. Interstudies heterogeneity was tested. A random effect model was generated if heterogeneity was bigger than 25 %. Pooled odds ratio with 95 % confidence interval (OR, 95 % CI) were calculated. Eight articles included 4,038 women with IOL (23.2 %) and 13,374 women with SL (76.8 %). IOL was associated with a lower incidence of vaginal delivery (OR 0.66; 95 % CI 0.55-0.80) and higher rates of cesarean section (OR 1.52; 95 % CI 1.26-1.83), uterine rupture/dehiscence (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.13-2.31), and post-partum hemorrhage (OR 1.57; 95 % CI 1.20-2.04), although hysterectomy was similar between the two groups (OR 2.60; 95 % CI 0.52-13.1). Neonatal morbidity was similar after IOL or SL (OR 1.13; 95 % CI 0.75-1.69). Induction of labor increases the risk of uterine rupture/dehiscence and of repeat cesarean section.