In both quadruplexes, the stem ions have residence times of 0 6-1

In both quadruplexes, the stem ions have residence times of 0.6-1.0 ms at 27 degrees C. The equilibrium constant for Na+ -> K+ exchange is similar to 4 for both loop and stem sites in Q3, in agreement with previous H-1 NMR findings.”
“Ninety percent of human cryptosporidiosis infections are attributed to two species; the anthroponotic Cryptosporidium hominis and the zoonotic Cryptosporidium parvum. Sequence analysis of the hypervariable gp60 gene, which is used to classify Cryptosporidium to the subtype level, has highlighted extensive intra-species

diversity within both C. hominis and C. parvum. The gp60 has also facilitated contamination source tracking BKM120 and increased understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis. Two surface glycoproteins, HM781-36B datasheet the gp40 and gp15 are encoded in the gp60 gene; both are exposed to the hosts’ immune system and play a pivotal role in the disease initiation process. The extent of genetic diversity observed within the gp60 would support the hypotheses of significant selection pressure placed on the gp40 and gp15. This study used a dual fluorescent terminal-restriction fragment length

polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to investigate the genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium subtype populations in a single host infection. Terminal-RFLP showed subtype variation within one human Cryptosporidium sample and mouse samples from seven consecutive passages with C. parvum. Furthermore, this was the first study to show that differences in the ratio of subtype populations occur between infections. T-RFLP has provided a novel platform to study infection populations and to begin to investigate

the impact of the hosts’ immune system on the gp60 gene. Crown Copyright (C) 2011 Published by Elsevier By. All rights reserved.”
“Importance of the field. Cancer is both a major health concern and a care-cost issue in the US and the rest of the world. It is estimated that there will be a total of 1,479,350 new cancer cases and 562,340 cancer deaths in 2009 within the US alone. One of the major obstacles in cancer therapy is the ability to target specifically cancer cells. Most existing chemotherapies and other routine therapies (such as radiation therapy and hormonal manipulation) use indiscriminate approaches in which both cancer cells and non-cancerous surrounding cells are treated equally by the toxic treatment. As a result, either the cancer cell escapes the toxic dosage necessary for cell death and consequently resumes replication, or an adequate lethal dose that kills the cancer cell also causes the cancer patient to perish. Owing to this dilemma, cancer- or organ/tissue-specific targeting is greatly desired for effective cancer treatment and the reduction of side effect cytotoxicity within the patient.

Yet, the response of individual organisms

to landscapes c

Yet, the response of individual organisms

to landscapes created by disturbances and management is rarely studied. In this study, we examined the endangered Karner blue GANT61 butterfly, Lycaeides melissa samuelis, in a heterogeneous oak savanna. Our objective was to quantify the butterfly’s habitat use and behavior to assess the effects of prescribed burning. The oak savanna management in Ohio, USA divides each Karner blue site (n = 4) into three units. Each one-third unit is then burned, mowed, or unmanaged in an annual rotation within each site, and the result is a fire return interval of similar to 3 years. Our surveys measured habitat use, while behavior observations quantified reproduction and foraging for the two annual broods. Our habitat use results showed burned treatments were recolonized quickly, but there was not a clear selection for burned treatments. Foraging rates were similar in all treatments; however, females oviposited significantly less in unmanaged treatments (only 5 of 127 ovipositions). This oviposition preference was likely due to habitat degradation and the availability of recently burned, early successional habitat. Since Karner blues avoided reproduction in units unburned for a parts per thousand yen4 years, these units could be burned to create high quality early successional habitat. These

results demonstrate how behavioral decisions can be pivotal forces driving spatial population dynamics. Our case study demonstrates how a fine-scale landscape perspective combined with Nutlin-3 molecular weight measurements of behavioral processes can assist with management decision-making.”
“Betaine-modified cationic cellulose was prepared through the reaction

of cellulose with betaine hydrochloride by an efficient one-step dry method. Dicyandiamide was used as a dehydrating agent to promote GM6001 supplier the formation of ester bonds between the reactants. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the cellulose betainate. Experiments showed that at a molar ratio of the cellulose glucose unit, betaine hydrochloride to dicyandiamide, of 1:1:0.5 at 150 degrees C for 3 h, the degree of substitution of the cationic group reached 0.80. The adsorption of simulated C. I. Reactive Red 24 and C. I. Reactive Red 195 wastewater on the cationic cellulose was carried out, and the effects of the adsorbent dose, initial dye concentration, and salt concentration on the dye removal efficiency were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption isotherm data of the cationic cellulose exhibited a better fit to the Langmuir isotherm model than the Freundlich one. The experimental results suggest that the prepared cationic cellulose materials show potential application for reactive dye wastewater treatment. (c) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40522.

Access through a 9-French sheath was necessary to introduce the A

Access through a 9-French sheath was necessary to introduce the Amplatzer Vascular III plug. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3D-TEE) was used to guide the operator and evaluate the severity of regurgitation postimplantation. Results: In total seven consecutive patients (mean age 72.8 +/- 5.6 years, 86% male) with a history of mitral valve (n = 6) or aortic valve buy VX-809 replacement and severe PVL, underwent transapical PVL reduction using seven plugs in total (diameter 10-14 mm). Preprocedural median logistic

EuroSCORE was 28.5% (range 17.1-41.1%) and NYHA functional class was >= 3 in all patients. The procedure was successful in all patients, with a median fluoroscopic time of 18.7 min (range 10.1-29.6 min). Postprocedure 3D-TEE showed occlusion of PVL in three patients, and significant reduction in three patients. Postprocedural

complication was a hematothorax requiring surgery in one patient. Median hospitalization duration GSK1120212 after the procedure was 5 days (range 5-59 days). At 3-month follow-up one patient died, functional class and LDH did not differ significantly and there was a significant increase in hemoglobin. Conclusions: Transapical paravalvular leak reduction might be a good or rather attractive alternative in high-risk patients for major re-do cardiac surgery. (C) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis is a still underdiagnosed cause of stroke, with an incidence of about 2.8 events per 100,000 person-years in young women and about 1.3 events per 100,000 person-years in the general population. Puerperium, oral hormonal contraception, and

coagulation disorders remain the most frequently identified risk factors. Initial treatment with heparin is the only proven therapy, although the evidence is based on only two randomized placebo-controlled trials which together included 79 patients. In the case of clinical deterioration under anticoagulation, local thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy may be considered, but clinical efficacy is supported only by case reports. Patients with imminent lateral herniation due to large hemorrhagic infarctions should be treated with prompt surgical decompression. Following the acute phase, oral anticoagulation is recommended for 312 months, and only patients suffering from AZD1390 mw a severe coagulopathy or with recurrent cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis should be considered for long-term anticoagulation. Only insufficient experience is available for novel anticoagulants such as thrombin inhibitors or factor Xa antagonists.”
“Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) taste sensitivity is an inherited trait determined primarily by allelic variation of the taste-receptor gene TAS2R38 on chromosome 7q. Results of prior studies examining the ability to taste PTC in patients with schizophrenia have been mixed because of the difficulties in measuring PTC taste sensitivity behaviorally.

8, and for the RI was 16 9 with false alarms reduced by 53% At t

8, and for the RI was 16.9 with false alarms reduced by 53%. At the RI point corresponding click here to equal LR+, the sensitivity for MEWS was 49% and 77% for RI, capturing 54% more of those patients who will die within 24 hours. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2014;9:116-119. 2013 The Authors. Journal of Hospital Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Hospital Medicine”
“The experimental and anatomical studies show the possibilities to use the autovenous in situ flap from the AV, RSV and BCVs in reconstruction

of the obstructed SCV. The authors discuss the possibilities to reduce the postoperative thrombogenic risk in reconstruction on the obstructed SCV with the next reconstructive surgical procedures with autovenous in situ flap:\n\nThe closure of the lateral partial defect of the wall of the SCV with the in situ flap from the AV.\n\nThe closure of the lateral partial defects

of the wall of the SCV, with the in situ RSV and RBCV flap and medial partial defects – with LBCV flap.\n\nThe complete replacement of the SCV with LBCV.\n\nConcerning the reduction of the postoperative thrombogenic risk, the reconstruction of the obstructed SCV with the autovenous in situ flaps has several GF120918 order advantages:\n\nThe techniques keep the proper vascularization of the autovenous in situ flaps, and reduce the ischemia in the flap, which leads to the best preservation of the endothelial cells.\n\nThe techniques permit the postoperative dilatation of the implanted vein; the use of the additional oblique incision of the vein leads to the increase of the diameter of the anastomotic ring.\n\nIn the area of the anastomosis, the veins were sutured with separate single sutures; the advantage of the separate single sutures in comparison with the continuous suture is that the separate single sutures do not limit the postoperative dilatation of the LBCV in the area of the anastomotic ring.\n\nThe separate single sutures are more favourable for the invasion of the endothelial cells from the flap to the recanalized SCV.\n\nThe reduced number of the created anastomoses reduces the

duration time of the surgery.\n\nThe similarity in the histological structure of the wall of the SCV, BCVs and SVs favoured the adaptation of the inserted venous flap in the new local haemodynamic conditions.\n\nThis set of alternative surgical techniques leads to the reduction of the postoperative thrombogenic risk in the surgery of the obstructed SCV. In addition, for the reduction of the postoperative thrombogenic risk, the regional postoperative heparinization through the branch of the cephalic vein was used.”
“Objective: The total burden of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) is significant among young adults. Serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) and fetuin-A are established predictors of morbidity and mortality because of cardiovascular disease.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive EMLA or placebo cr

\n\nPatients were randomly assigned to receive EMLA or placebo cream (Aqueous) applied under an occlusive dressing.

After the procedure, patients were asked to rate the needle prick and procedure pain on a 5-Fluoracil visual analog scale (0=no pain; 10=maximum pain).\n\nA total of 94 minor surgical procedures (49 in EMLA and 45 in control) were performed. The mean needle-stick pain score in the EMLA group was significantly lower than in the control group (2.7 vs. 5.7, p <.001, Mann-Whitney U-test). There was also significantly lower procedure pain in the EMLA group than in the control group (0.83 vs. 1.86, p=.009). There were no complications associated with the use of EMLA.\n\nEMLA effectively reduces the R788 mw preprocedural needle-stick pain and procedural pain associated with minor surgical procedures.\n\nAqueous Cream was provided by Pinewood Healthcare, Dublin, Ireland.”
“Age may be an independent predictor of outcomes in traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the causes of the poor outcomes in elderly patients remain unclear. To clarify the differences

between elderly and young patients with TBI, brain metabolism parameters were monitored with the microdialysis method in 30 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale scores 3-8). The microdialysis probe was inserted in the penumbra area of the brain and extracellular levels of glucose, glutamate, glycerol, lactate, and pyruvate were measured hourly for the initial 168 hours (7 days) after operation. The lactate/pyruvate ratio, which is considered to be a good indicator of neuronal ischemia, was also calculated. The patients were divided into the elderly P505-15 order group aged 65 years or older and the young group aged less than 65 years, and the biochemical markers were compared daily between these two groups. The value of extracellular glucose concentration was significantly lower in the elderly group than in the young group, and continued until the 7th day after injury. Moreover, the lactate/pyruvate ratio peaked on the 5th day after injury in

the elderly group, later than in the young group. We concluded that neural vulnerability persisted longer in elderly patients than in young patients with TBI, and this should be considered to prevent the occurrence of additional secondary brain injury.”
“Morphological associative memories (MAMs) are a special type of associative memory which exhibit optimal absolute storage capacity and one-step convergence. This associative model substitutes the additions and multiplications used by other models by computing maximums and minimums. This type of associative model has been applied to different pattern recognition problems including face localization and gray scale image restoration. Despite of his power, MAMs have not been applied in problems that involve true-color patterns. In this paper it is described how a MAM can be applied in problems involving true-color patterns.

2% of physicians and 41% of nurses would repeat the initial treat

2% of physicians and 41% of nurses would repeat the initial treatment in case of failure of the first dose and 47% of doctors would wait 30 min to intervene. In case of refractory status epilepticus, 34% of physicians would give three doses of benzodiazepine, whereas 19% did not know what to do. These results suggest poor adherence to national protocol.”

cancer is still difficult to treat by current chemotherapeutic procedures. We recently found that MVL, an anti-HIV lectin from blue-green algae Microcystis viridis, also has antitumor Selonsertib nmr activity. The objective of this study was to investigate apoptosis-inducing activity of recombinant MVL (R-MVL) and proteomic changes in A549 cells, and to identify the molecular pathways responsible for the

anti-cancer action of R-MVL. We found that R-MVL induces A549 cells apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner by using MTT assay, fluorescent microscope (FM) and flow cytometry (FCM), and the IC50 was calculated to be 24.12 mu g/ml. Subsequently, 7 altered proteins in R-MVL-treated A549 cells were identified, including upregulated aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 and beta-actin, and five downregulated proteins: heat shock protein 90, heat shock 60, plastin 3, tropomyosin 3, and beta-tubulin. Further bioinformatics analysis predicted the potential pathways for R-MVL to induce apoptosis GSK3235025 Epigenetics inhibitor of A549 cells. In conclusion, this is the first report to investigate anti-cancer activity of R-MVL and its mechanism of action by proteomics analysis. Our observations provide potential therapeutic targets for lung cancer inhibitor intervention and implicated the development of novel anti-cancer therapeutic strategies.”
“Membrane-sculpting BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs)

domains form a crescent-shaped homodimer that can sense and induce membrane curvature through its positively charged concave face. We have recently AC220 solubility dmso shown that Arfaptin-2, which was originally identified as a binding partner for the Arf and Rac1 GTPases, binds to Arl1 through its BAR domain and is recruited onto Golgi membranes. There, Arfaptin-2 induces membrane tubules. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Arfaptin-2 BAR homodimer in complex with two Arl1 molecules bound symmetrically to each side, leaving the concave face open for membrane association. The overall structure of the Arl1.Arfaptin-2 BAR complex closely resembles that of the PX-BAR domain of sorting nexin 9, suggesting similar mechanisms underlying BAR domain targeting to specific organellar membranes. The Arl1.Arfaptin-2 BAR structure suggests that one of the two Arl1 molecules competes with Rac1, which binds to the concave face of the Arfaptin-2 BAR homodimer and may hinder its membrane association.”
“The Mmr multidrug efflux pump recognizes and actively extrudes a broad range of antimicrobial agents, and promotes the intrinsic resistance to these antimicrobials in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household

Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by

race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use.\n\nResults: Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6-11.8% in 2009-2011 (P < 0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; Blebbistatin clinical trial but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, selleckchem respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use.\n\nConclusions: Findings

reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Primary de novo intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws has been rarely reported. We present a new case of this unusual tumour and discuss its histopathological and clinical aspects. The subject check details was a 76-year-old man who was seen due to complaints of pain and the presence of gingival changes in the left mandible. A panoramic radiograph and computed tomography revealed a large mandibular radiolucency. A segmentary mandibulectomy was performed and histopathologic examination proved that the tumour was an intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. Surgeons should appreciate

the aggressiveness of this tumour, despite adequate surgical treatment.”
“Objective: To investigate the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on haemodynamics, pulmonary histopathology, arterial blood gas and pro-inflammatory responses to thermal injury.\n\nInterventions: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six equal groups: normal control (NC) group; thermal injury (TEM) group subjected to 40% total body surface area (%TBSA) third-degree thermal injury; vagotomy (VGX) group subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy after thermal injury; electrical stimulation (STM) group subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy plus the left vagus nerve trunk electrical stimulation (5 V, 2 ms and 1 Hz) after thermal injury; the antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (MRA) group administrated with atropine (0.

The NMDA receptors are arranged as a dimer of GluN1-GluN2B hetero

The NMDA receptors are arranged as a dimer of GluN1-GluN2B heterodimers with the twofold symmetry axis running through the entire molecule composed of an

amino terminal domain (ATD), a ligand-binding domain (LBD), and a transmembrane domain (TMD). The ATD and LBD are much more highly packed in the NMDA receptors than non-NMDA receptors, which may explain why ATD regulates selleck screening library ion channel activity in NMDA receptors but not in non-NMDA receptors.”
“A robust method for identifying movement in the free-living environment is needed to objectively measure physical activity. The purpose of this study was to validate the identification of postural orientation and movement from acceleration data against visual inspection from video recordings. Using tri-axial accelerometers placed on the waist and thigh, static orientations of standing, sitting, and lying down, as well as dynamic movements of walking, jogging and transitions between postures were identified. Additionally, subjects walked and jogged at self-selected slow, comfortable,

and fast speeds. Identification of tasks was performed using a combination of the signal magnitude area, continuous wavelet transforms and accelerometer orientations. Twelve healthy adults were studied in the laboratory, with two investigators identifying tasks during each second of video observation. The intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were greater than 0.95 for all activities except for transitions. Results demonstrated high validity, with sensitivity and positive predictive values of greater than 85% for

sitting and lying, with walking and jogging identified at greater than 90%. The greatest disagreement in identification accuracy between the algorithm and video occurred when subjects were asked to fidget while standing or sitting. During variable speed tasks, gait was correctly identified for speeds between 0.1 m/s and 4.8 m/s. This study included a range of walking speeds and natural movements such as fidgeting mTOR signaling pathway during static postures, demonstrating that accelerometer data can be used to identify orientation and movement among the general population. (C) 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives:\n\nMesenchymal stem cells have great potential for tissue regeneration, and these cells can be harvested from a variety of tissues; however, up to now it has not been clear whether stem cells could be isolated from cruciate ligaments of the knee joint. The aim of our study was to isolate and characterize stem cells from both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) of humans.\n\nMaterials and methods:\n\nCruciate igaments were obtained from patients receiving total knee arthroplasty for advanced osteoarthritis and plastic-adherent cells were serially passaged.

The crown creates a more concentric, smooth vessel lumen with inc

The crown creates a more concentric, smooth vessel lumen with increased diameter, increased lesion compliance selleck chemicals and improved blood flow while protecting the vessel media. As a result, the risk for post-procedure thrombus formation and potential for restenosis may be reduced. The risk of intra-procedural events (slow flow, hemolysis, spasm and pain) may be reduced due to the design of this orbital sanding system along with proper technique. Extensive benchtop, in vivo, and clinical testing has confirmed these results and is presented within this paper. In

addition, guidelines for selecting the most appropriate crown size and type (solid versus classic) and step-by-step procedural technique and pharmacology information are presented. The DB360 System provides a safe, efficacious, and cost-effective endovascular method for PAD treatment. Careful understanding of procedural methods, use of pharmacological drugs, and understanding of device operation contributes to improved treatment success.”
“Introduction: The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk buy Bucladesine among men who have sex with men (MSM) is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population. Methods: We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA) on HIV seroconversion

in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders. Results: Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5%) reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6%) reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8%) participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89,

95% confidence interval (CI): 1.65-14.48), after controlling for potential confounders. Conclusion: Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening HDAC inhibitor of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.”
“Background: Germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes underlie Lynch Syndrome (LS). We aimed to gain comprehensive genetic and epigenetic profiles of LS families in Singapore, which will facilitate efficient molecular diagnosis of LS in Singapore and the region. Methods: Fifty nine unrelated families were studied. Mutations in exons, splice-site junctions and promoters of five MMR genes were scanned by high resolution melting assay followed by DNA sequencing, large fragment deletions/duplications and promoter methylation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.

01) from days 1 to 2 of culture and became undetectable by day 3

01) from days 1 to 2 of culture and became undetectable by day 3 and basal progesterone production increased (p < 0.05) from day 1 through day 4 of the culture. Although there was no effect of FSH on day 1 of the culture, FSH at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/ml increased (p < 0.05) oestradiol-17 beta production by granulosa cells from small follicles on day 2. Progesterone secretion was increased (p < 0.05) by all doses of FSH on all days of culture. All doses of LH had no effect on oestradiol-17 beta or progesterone production by granulosa cells from small follicles on any day of the culture. The results of this study demonstrate a serum-free culture system for buffalo granulosa cells and stimulatory effect

of FSH but not LH on steroid hormone production by buffalo granulosa cells under these conditions.”
“The find more goal of the present work was to separate zones of pickling cucumber field cultivation

in Poland according to the various degrees Fer-1 manufacturer of climatic risk The study used 40 years of (1966 2005) data from 28 experimental stations of the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing The data characterised the course of the growth development cucumber crop productivity and also the agrotechnical dates Additionally the work considered agrometeorological data of 7 development stages of the analysed plant sunshine duration soil temperature at a height of 5 cm air temperature at a height of 2 m and 5 cm above ground level and atmospheric precipitation The agrometeorological data was collected from 53 meteorological stations in the Polish network of the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management Weather yield regression equations were used to determine unfavourable agiometeoroloycal elements which is the best way to determined the quantity of the cucumber total and marketable yield The highest climatic risk of pickling cucumber field cultivation occurred in about 7% of Poland s area This is the area covering the southwestern southeastern the northern and northeastern parrs of the country In these areas very high occurrence frequency of agrometeorological elements was noted

These elements were air and sod temperatures that were too low during Ro-3306 the whole growing season and too short of a duration of the period without frost lasting <= 120 days”
“The purpose of this study was to examine the ability of Er:YAG laser to remove root canal filling materials. The root canals of 21 extracted human anterior teeth were enlarged, and then obturated with gutta-percha points and sealer by lateral condensation. Filling materials were removed from root canals using Er:YAG laser irradiation at three energy output levels (30, 40, and 50 mJ/pulse), and the corresponding time required for material removal at each energy output level was recorded. The amount of remaining filling material and the degree of dentin ablation in the canal wall were assessed using microfocus X-ray CT before and after removal.