Furthermore, the early PD group was studied in two conditions: with and without dopamine replacement therapy (DIRT). We failed to find any significant difference in ToM between the early PD patients and the HC group. Furthermore, there was no difference between the early PD patients in the medicated and unmedicated conditions. Conversely. the advanced PD patients scored poorly on the intention attribution 17-AAG question (“”cognitive”" ToM score) in the faux pas recognition task. The present results suggest that the deficit in ToM only occurs in the more
advanced stages of the disease. In addition. our results would appear to indicate that these advanced PD patients present “”cognitive”" ToM impairment rather than global (“”cognitive”" and “”affective”") ToM impairment. In other words, the ToM deficit would appear to be present in PD patients where the degenerative click here process has spread beyond the dopaminergic pathways, but not in early PD patients where neuronal loss is thought to be restricted to the nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. In conclusion,
our results suggest that the dopaminergic pathways are not involved in ToM. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Genitofemoral nerve injury is an underappreciated complication after laparoscopic varicocele ligation in teenage boys. We describe the incidence according to ligation instrument and the pattern of spontaneous symptom resolution.
Materials and Methods: Patients who underwent laparoscopic varicocele ligation between 2004 and 2007 were retrospectively grouped by ligation modality (clipping or cautery by ultrasonic shears). The incidence of iatrogenic genitofemoral nerve injury was assessed and
compared. To illustrate the pattern of resolution, 1 affected patient documented the decreasing area of paresthesia through time on a topographic map.
Results: During the study period laparoscopic varicocele ligation was performed using ultrasonic shears in 12 boys and endoscopic clips/cold dissection in 15. either Genitofemoral nerve injury occurred in 2 patients using ultrasonic shears (17%) and no patient in the clip/cold dissection group (p = 0.10). In both patients the paresthesias resolved completely by 8 months.
Conclusions: Genitofemoral nerve injury may be more frequent when the dissection is performed using “”hot”" methods such as cautery by ultrasonic shears. Preoperatively, patients should be made aware of the relatively high incidence and the usually self-limiting nature of this complication.