Methods Women with or without symptoms of PFD were studied in a t

Methods Women with or without symptoms of PFD were studied in a tertiary referral urogynecology center between February

and October 2010. Women were recruited from the Department of Radiology, where they were referred for a CT pelvis scan due to various pathologies. Assessment Momelotinib mw of participants included a detailed clinical interview, completion of King’s Health and Prolapse-Quality of Life (P-QOL) questionnaires and spiral CT scan of the pelvis. Bilateral attachments of the PM to the pubic rami were identified in the plane of minimal hiatal dimensions, when present, and measurement of the levator symphysis gap (LSG) was taken in cases with PM complete detachment. Bivariate analysis between the PM maximum thickness and different obstetric variables was performed by using Spearman’s correlation test (P<0.05). Results One hundred ten women were included GSI-IX in the analysis. The overall prevalence of PM avulsion was 6.4% (7/110). In cases with confirmed avulsion, the levator sympysis gap (LSG) ranged from 17.30 to 25.40mm. The left PM was found to be significantly thinner in parous women and in those with a history of prolonged second stage of labor. Conclusions The prevalence of pubovisceral muscle avulsion using CT scanning in a general gynecology cohort is 6.4%. Thinning of the pubovisceral

muscle occurs with parity and protracted labor and is more prominent on the left portion of the muscle. Neurourol. Urodynam. 32: 359362, 2013. (c) 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.”
“Pregnane oligoglycoside, namely roylinine (1), and a pregnane derivative, namely marsgenin (11), have been isolated from chloroform-soluble extract of dried stem of

Marsdenia roylei, and their structures were determined find more using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, 1H-1H COSY, HSQC, TOCSY and FABMS spectral techniques as well as chemical degradation and derivatisation.”
“Aims To explore the durability of efficacy and gender differences during chronic administration of desmopressin in nocturia. Methods This pooled analysis of three short-term efficacy studies, with extensions, of desmopressin administered as orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) or solid tablet in nocturia treatment, comprised 351 patients completing 4056 weeks’ treatment. Efficacy endpoints of change in number of nocturnal voids and duration of initial undisturbed sleep period from baseline were analyzed to determine response durability and gender differences. Results The mean decrease in number of nocturnal voids during short-term treatment was maintained and further reduced during the long term. At 52 weeks, the mean decrease in number of nocturnal voids from baseline reached 1.42.1 voids for desmopressin ODT 25100 mu g. Following 40-week tablet treatment, the decrease in number of nocturnal voids was 0.81.5 for desmopressin 100400 mu g.

Overall average retention after 12 months was 54 3% [95% confiden

Overall average retention after 12 months was 54.3% [95% confidence interval (CI)=46.2, BIBF 1120 concentration 63.7%]. Overall average retention was moderately good for both buprenorphine (48.3%, 95% CI=22.1, 74.6%) and methadone (56.6%, 95% CI=45.9%, 67.3%) after 12 months of treatment. Among programs

using methadone there was no statistically significant difference in average retention by dosage level, and the 10 highest and lowest dosage programs obtained similar average retention levels after 12 months.

ConclusionMedication-assisted treatment programs in low- and middle-income countries achieve an average 50% retention rate after 12 months, with wide variation across programs but little difference between those using buprenorphine versus methadone.”

The article presents multi-species, genome-wide, comparative approach to review male fertility-associated loci to contribute to the development of new genetic markers that could be of

interest for functional studies and have the potential to be implemented in farm animal breeding programmes. We reviewed 835 male fertility-associated candidate loci from seven species and presented them as bovine orthologues where possible. The candidate loci selleck were identified exploiting seven different research approaches: (i) data from animal models: mouse transgenics and knock-outs (569 genes) and random chemical mutagenesis of mouse genome (31); (ii) animal QTL (69); (iii) genes differentially expressed between fertile and subfertile phenotype in humans and mouse (95); (iv) DNA sequence variations that show specific allele-phenotype interactions (43 in human and 13 in farm animals); (v) germ line-specific small

Tubastatin A mouse non-coding RNAs (47); (vi) testes expressed genes controlling complex differentiation process of mammalian spermatogenesis (6); and (vii) epigenetically regulated genes (4). According to the number of different research approaches reporting effects of individual genes, we selected 33 most promising candidate genes, which were further in silico analysed for expression levels in testes, genetic variability and top biological functions in functional networks. The aim of this study was to review systematically male fertility-associated candidate loci using integrated information from different study approaches and species, which will further facilitate development of novel genetic markers for selection towards improved fertility in domestic animals.”
“Electrolyzed acid water (EAW) has been studied for its disinfective potential against pathogenic microbes; however, the bactericidal process against Mycobacteria has not been clearly presented. In this study, to clarify the disinfective process against Mycobacteria, EAW-treated bacteria were examined against laboratory strains of Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smegmatis), and Mycobacterium terrae (M. terrae) by recovery culture and observation of morphology, enzymatic assay, and the detection of DNA.

60 +/- 0 05 to 0 55 +/- 0 06 (P = 0 03)) and severity of CSA (apn

60 +/- 0.05 to 0.55 +/- 0.06 (P = 0.03)) and severity of CSA (apnoea-hypopnoea

index increased from 76.8 +/- 48.8 to 115.9 +/- 20.2 (P = 0.01)), while partial arterial carbon dioxide concentration fell from 29 +/- 3 to 26 +/- 2 (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Contrary to the results at lower altitudes, at high-altitude loop gain and severity of CSA increased.”
“The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of expression of Excision Repair Cross-complementation Group 1 (ERCC1), B cell lymphoma/lewkmia-2 (Bcl-2) and metallothionein (MT) by immunohistochemically staining tumor specimens from 78 patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The result showed that positive expression of ERCC1 was associated both with short survival (10.45 months vs. 14.38 months, log-rank p = 0.003) and poor response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy (p = 0.003) when compared with negative group. But expression of Bcl-2 and MT was not associated with response to chemotherapy and survival. Multivariate analysis confirmed that expression of ERCC1 was an independent variable related to overall survival (p = 0.013). These data support the role of RECC1 expression as

a candidate predictor for the survival of patients with advanced NSCLC treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.”
“The lip biopsy is essential for the diagnosis of primary Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) but an invasive method can cause some disadvantages. The purpose of this study is to apply Raman spectroscopy to detect the pathological minor salivary Compound C glands in primary SS and establish the diagnostic model of Raman spectra of the primary SS samples. Raman spectra from the primary samples and control

samples were obtained by Raman microscope and were compared to find the differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and discrimination function analysis (DFA) were employed to analyze the spectra and establish the diagnostic model. The differences of Raman spectra demonstrated the biochemical molecular alterations between the different samples. Compared with the control samples, the content Selleck Wnt inhibitor of proteins, nucleic acids, and keratin increased in the primary SS samples but the content of lipids decreased. PCA and DFA displayed a powerful role in the classification of the Raman spectra. The sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic model reached above 91 and 92 %, respectively. The total accuracy is 92.4 %. Raman spectroscopy combined with PCA-DFA algorithm will provide an effective and accurate technology for the diagnosis of the pathological minor salivary glands in primary SS, which may replace the lip biopsy in the future.”
“Background and objective: The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) plays an important role in inflammation. Few studies have looked at sRAGE levels in human lungs, and there is no information in children.

GST genes (GSTM1, GSTO1 GSTO2, GSTT1) were analysed in three Ecua

GST genes (GSTM1, GSTO1 GSTO2, GSTT1) were analysed in three Ecuadorian populations (Cayapas, n = 114; Colorados, n = 104; African-Ecuadorian, n = 77) and compared with HapMap data. GST SNPs were determined using the PCR-RFLP method while GST null phenotype was determined using a Multiplex PCR.

The population INCB024360 supplier relationship achieved using GSTM1 positive/null, GSTO1*A140D, GSTO2*N142D and GSTT1 positive/null are in agreement with the data obtained using neutral polymorphisms: Amerindians are close to Asian populations

and African-Ecuadorians to African populations. To what concerns GSTO1*del155 and GSTO1*K208 variants, allele frequencies never exceeded 10%, showing no significant differences in the Ecuadorian groups and in worldwide populations.

The features of GSTO1*del155 and GSTO1*K208 variants and their association with arsenic biotransformation deficiency suggest the presence of a selection mechanism towards these loci. In particular, this hypothesis is strengthened by a possible linkage between these alleles and the susceptibility of arsenic-induced male infertility.”
“We investigate the mechanical wave propagation in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) induced by two oscillating tips, using molecular dynamics

simulations. We found a mandatory correlation condition between the tip oscillation frequency and magnitude in order to generate a quasi-steady-state standing wave with a characteristic wavelength and frequency changing with the tube radius, but independent of tip conditions. Our findings suggest the possibility of Apoptosis inhibitor using SWNTs as nanopumping systems for potential applications of fluid transport and drug delivery.”
“Objective. We conducted check details a telephonic survey to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with neuropathic characteristics (NC) in the Moroccan general population. Design. We performed a large nationwide

telephonic survey based upon a random sampling of households in the 16 administrative regions of Morocco to determine the prevalence of chronic pain with NC in the general population. We used a stratified sampling taking into account the number of residents in each region. A sample of households was drawn for each of the 16 regions using systematic sampling. Outcome Measures. A questionnaire aimed at identifying chronic pain (defined as daily pain for at least 3 months), evaluating its intensity, duration, and body locations was used. The Moroccan validated version of DN4 questionnaire was used to identify neuropathic characteristics. Results. A total of 5,328 respondents participated in the survey. 21% of the respondents (1,074) (95%CI: 19,922,2), reported chronic daily pain for more than 3 months. The point prevalence of chronic pain with NC, was 10.6% (95% CI: 9,7511,45). The prevalence was higher in women and individuals older than 60. Chronic pain with NC was significantly more prevalent in women, elderly, illiterate respondents, and respondents from lower social class.

We also documented a statistically significant improvement in phy

We also documented a statistically significant improvement in physical and behavioral function. All subjects showed a significant reduction in the oral opioid consumption. The dose of IT opioids remained low and virtually unchanged for 36 months of followup: 1.4 morphine equivalent/day at 6 months and 1.48 at 36 months. Oral opioid averaged 128.9 mg of morphine equivalent/patient/day at baseline to 3.8 at 3 month and remained at the same level throughout the study. Conclusion. Low-dose LY2835219 Cell Cycle inhibitor IT opioid can provide sustained significant improvement in pain and

function for long-term follow-up in chronic noncancer pain.”
“Objective-To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary Selleckchem BI 2536 graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education.


Sample Population-All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions.

Procedures-Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases

of veterinary education such competencies should be developed lie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline.

Results-Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings click here were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal

and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:53-64)”
“Objectives. The objectives of this study were to test for differences in prescription monitoring program (PMP) use between two states, Connecticut (CT) and Rhode Island (RI), with a different PMP accessibility; to explore use of PMP reports in clinical practice; and to examine associations between PMP use and clinician’s responses to suspected diversion or doctor shopping (i.e.

The micelle properties were studied by dynamic light scattering a

The micelle properties were studied by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence spectrometry. An in vitro degradation study showed that the synthesized polymers degraded hydrolytically within 24 h under physiological conditions. The stability of paclitaxel-loaded pH-sensitive micelles was evaluated in vitro. The introduced deoxycholic

acid more stabilized the micelles at pH 7.4 compared to the micelles without modification. But the pH-sensitive region of the micelles was lowered from pH 6.8 to pH 5.8. These results indicate that pH-sensitive micelles with improved stability have great potential as hydrophobic drug carriers for tumor targeting. LDK378 molecular weight (C) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci 118: 3431-3438, 2010″
“Study Design. Prospective clinical series.

Objective. To determine how many thoracic scoliotic pedicles have cancellous versus cortical versus absent channels.

Summary of Background Data. Although morphologic evaluations of thoracic pedicles have been well reported, the results do not practically reflect clinical findings during actual pedicle screw placement. We propose a novel pedicle channel classification describing the osseous anatomy INCB024360 nmr encountered during pedicle probe insertion.

Methods. We noted 4 pedicle types in 53 consecutive scoliosis patients.

Type A: pedicle probe smoothly inserted without difficulty; the morphology is described as a “”Large Cancellous Channel.”" Type B: pedicle probe inserted snugly with increased force; described as a “”Small Cancellous Channel.”" Type C: pedicle probe cannot be manually pushed

but must be tapped with a mallet down the pedicle into the body; described as a “”Cortical Channel.”" Type D: pedicle probe cannot locate a channel thus necessitating a “”juxtapedicular”" screw position; described as a “”Slit/Absent Channel.”" The average age at time of surgery was 23.4 +/- 16.7 years. Diagnoses included idiopathic scoliosis (n = 38) and syndromic scoliosis (n = 15). The average main thoracic Cobb angle was 73 degrees +/- 26 degrees. Evaluation of pedicle morphology of the 4 types was also performed check details in 21 consecutive cases of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using preoperative computed tomography images.

Results. A total of 1021 pedicles with screws placed were evaluated. The average percent per type was as follows: 61.0% type A; 29.2% type B, 6.8% type C, and 3.0% type D. On the convexity, 98.2% of pedicles were type A or B versus 81.5% on the concavity (P < 0.05). There were significant differences between adolescent versus adult idiopathic scoliosis (P = 0.007), and syndromic scoliosis versus adult idiopathic scoliosis (P = 0.017) regarding pedicle morphologic proportions. There was a significant tendency toward a decrease in the proportion of type A pedicles, an increase in the proportion of type B pedicles as the Cobb angle increased (P < 0.0001).

2%) conditions The CI group was more accurate in recognizing ris

2%) conditions. The CI group was more accurate in recognizing rising contour in the melodic condition compared with rising intonation in the spoken condition. Pitch ranking was a significant predictor of outcome for both groups in falling intonation and rising melodic contour; age at testing and hearing history variables were not predictive of outcomes.

Conclusion: Children with CIs were VE-821 mouse less accurate than NH children in perception of speech intonation, melodic contour, and pitch ranking. However, the larger pitch excursions of the melodic condition may assist in recognition of the rising inflection associated with the interrogative form.”
“Although some elements of renal physiology can be traced

to scattered references in Greek medical writings,

mainly in Hippocrates’ and Erasistratus’ works, it was Galen who made the first breakthrough observations regarding the function of the kidneys. He often wrote his observations not as a diatribe, but as a confrontation with other physicians, mainly of the Erasistratian School. He outlined the great importance of the disproportionally large blood supply of the kidneys, an over-proportion not observed in any other organ, rightly arguing that this is a teleological procedure to achieve satisfactory body clearance. He challenged the dominant idea that blood purification and hence the formation of urine took place in the large branches of the renal vessels. He strongly check details argued that the special structure of the kidney tissue was responsible for their cathartic ability. Although he had no idea of

the histology of the kidney, he made some beautiful similitudes to explain the filtering capacity of the renal tissue. From Galen onwards, very few changes and additions can be traced in Greek and thereafter Byzantine medical texts, regarding renal physiology. It is Johannes Actuarius who, 12 centuries later, writes an extensive treatise on urine and presents his point of view on renal physiology, mainly as conclusions from the NSC 23766 pathological findings of uroscopy. In the present paper, we compare the 2 physicians’ approaches on the function of the kidneys, which can be attributed to the accumulation of medical knowledge over the 12 centuries that separate them.”
“Background and objective: Endobronchial ultrasound with transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a pulmonary procedure that can be challenging to learn. This study aims to compare trainee EBUS-TBNA performance during clinical procedures, following training with a computer EBUS-TBNA simulator versus conventional clinical EBUS-TBNA training.

Methods: A prospective study of pulmonary trainees performing EBUS-TBNA procedures on patients with suspected lung cancer and mediastinal adenopathy. Two cohorts of trainees were each evaluated while performing EBUS-TBNA on two patients. Group 1 received training by performing 15 cases on an EBUS-TBNA simulator (n = 4) and had never performed a clinical EBUS-TBNA procedure.

We observed in via/line Cu interconnect structures that voids are

We observed in via/line Cu interconnect structures that voids are formed directly beneath the via, i.e., in the Cu wide line at the edge of the via bottom. It is concluded that voids are originally formed at the site where eventually the catastrophic failure occurs. During stress migration tests, Cu atoms migrate from regions

of low stress to regions of high tensile stress, and simultaneously, vacancies migrate along the stress gradient (within a limited range of some microns) in the opposite direction to the location where small vias connect wide Cu lines. The stress distribution and the driving forces for atomic transport depend strongly on the particular geometry of the tested structure but also on interface bonding and metal GDC-0068 in vivo microstructure.

Vacancies form agglomerates and subsequently voids that grow further. The void growth rate depends on the Cu thin film material buy eFT-508 and its microstructure, particularly the grain size and the grain orientations. The Cu. microstructure in the surroundings of the formed void shows that Cu grains are predominantly (111) oriented relatively to the wafer surface. Interfaces and grain boundaries, and particularly their orientation, determine the void evolution dynamics. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3254166]“
“Objective-To determine whether plasma total CO2 concentrations would vary with the size of the evacuated tube used to collect blood samples.

Design-Randomized crossover study.

Animals-Convenience sample of 20 healthy adult horses.

Procedures-Jugular venous blood was collected from horses in random order into 8 types of evacuated tubes: 2-mL glass,

2- or 3-mL plastic or plastic plasma separator, 4- or 6-mL plastic, and 10-mL glass or plastic. Total CO2 concentrations in plasma were measured with a biochemistry analyzer. Data were analyzed via repeated-measures ANOVA and multivariate regression.

Results-The air volume-to-blood volume ratio was significantly higher GSK1120212 and consequently, plasma total CO2 concentration was significantly lower when blood was collected into 2-mL glass tubes and 2- or 3-mL plastic tubes than when the other 5 types of evacuated tubes were used. Concentrations in the other tube types were statistically equivalent. A linear relationship was detected between total CO2 concentration and air volume-to-blood volume ratio.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Blood samples should be collected into evacuated tubes with a small air volume-to-blood volume ratio whenever an accurate estimate of plasma total CO2 concentration is required. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2012;241:922-926)”
“Preterm birth can be caused by intrauterine infection and maternal/fetal inflammatory responses. Maternal inflammation (chorioamnionitis) is often followed by a systemic fetal inflammatory response characterized by elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the fetal circulation.

Four cases are reported The nerve fibers of the subepithelial ne

Four cases are reported. The nerve fibers of the subepithelial nerve plexus showed strong positivity for S-100, CD56, and synaptophysin, and were intimately associated with epithelial islands. CD56 showed positivity around the periphery of the epithelial islands. Proper recognition of these anatomic structures is crucial to prevent misdiagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma with perineural invasion.”
“The risk of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease later developing

multiple endocrine neoplasia remains a matter of concern. The multiple endocrine neoplasia 2-Hirschsprung’s disease association has been shown to cosegregate in Hirschsprung’s disease patients with both short-and long-segment AZD1480 aganglionosis, although patients with long-segment aganglionosis

a to carry the greatest risk. The Hirschsprung’s disease-medullary thyroid carcinoma relationship also appears to be bi-directional, and activation or suppression of the rearranged during transfection gene appeared to vary over succeeding generations within the same family. Rearranged during transfection gene variations are associated with both conditions. The cosegregation of Hirschsprung’s disease HKI-272 ic50 and multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 is particularly interesting as it involves both “”switch off” and “”switch on” of the rearranged during transfection proto-oncogene in the same patient. This cosegregation mostly relates to the cysteine-rich area on RET-620 (the “”Janus gene”). The mechanism whereby rearranged during transfection influences gene activation

in multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 is complex, but genetic variations impair the rearranged during transfection tyrosine kinase response to tyrosine kinase activation, thus appearing to dictate downstream signaling cascade responses. Better understanding of the RET-620 relationship allows for a more cost-effective method of identifying those at risk by focusing rearranged during SCH727965 manufacturer transfection gene testing to this specific area as a “”hot spot”. The clinical awareness of possible medullary thyroid carcinoma has led to timely intervention and early treatment of this chemo-and radioresistant tumor with poor prognosis. Establishment of “”risk” by genetic testing has become a classic model of molecular medicine being integrated into patient care and offering rearranged during transfection-directed prophylactic surgical management. In addition, novel approaches to treatment based on this genetic knowledge have already shown early promise in randomized clinical trials.”

Previous studies have observed an association between unmarried status of the mother and adverse perinatal outcome such as increased rate of preterm deliveries, low birthweight and small-for-gestational-age infants. In Israel, attendance of prenatal care is imposed by the state and is not related to socioeconomic status; therefore, unmarried women are expected to have a similar prenatal care as married women.

To test our hypothesis,

we crossed MUC1 transgenic mice,

To test our hypothesis,

we crossed MUC1 transgenic mice, which express human MUC1 under the endogenous promoter, with the loxP-Stop-loxP-KraS(G12D/+) (Kras) mice, in which endometriosis can be induced through Cre-loxP recombination. The double transgenic MUC1 Kras mice develop benign, MUC1-positive ovarian lesions, closely resembling human endometriosis. Subsequent to disease induction, the mice generate high titers of IgM and IgG antibodies that are specific Caspase-dependent apoptosis for MUC1. Antibodies appear early in disease and the predominance of the IgG1 subclass suggests Th2-driven immunity. Immune phenotyping revealed an accumulation of Foxp3+ CD4 regulatory T cells (Tregs) in the draining lymph nodes at selleck chemicals late-stage disease. Furthermore, our observations in human endometriosis showed a similar recruitment of FOXP3+ CD4 T cells. Overall, our results reveal a Th2/Treg-dominant natural immunity in endometriosis with potential implications

for cancer progression.”
“Objectives: To determine the prophylactic efficacy of an Sm-p80-based vaccine formulation against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni in mice using an approach comprising of initial priming with DNA and boosting with recombinant protein in the presence of resiquimod (R848) as an adjuvant.

Methods: In the first experiment (prime-boost approach), mice were primed with Sm-p80-pcDNA3 (week 0) and boosted at weeks 4 and 8 with recombinant Sm-p80 formulated in resiquimod (R848). Each learn more mouse in the control group first received only pcDNA3 and was boosted with R848. In the second set of experiments (recombinant protein approach), mice were immunized (week 0) and boosted (weeks 4 and 8) with rSm-p80 formulated in R848. Animals of the control group in this series of experiments received only R848 at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. All of the animals from both the ‘prime-boost’ and ‘recombinant protein’ groups were challenged with cercariae of S. mansoni, 4 weeks after the last immunization. The mice were sacrificed 6 weeks post-challenge and the reductions in worm burden and egg production were determined. Sm-p80-specific antibody titers were

estimated in the mice sera by ELISA. Cytokine mRNA and protein production by proliferating splenocytes in response to in vitro stimulation with Sm-p80, were estimated via RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively.

Results: Vaccination with Sm-p80 (prime-boost approach) showed 49% reduction in worm burden; with the recombinant protein approach the protection was found to be 50%. The protection levels were correlated with antibody production. Upon antigenic stimulation with recombinant Sm-p80, splenocytes secreted significant levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, indicating that the immune responses were Th1-biased and this was further supported in terms of distribution of antibody isotypes and mRNA expression of cytokines.