Epithelial junction proteins ZO-1 and E-cadherin were downregulated in all cell lines in response to TGF-beta 1, but mesenchymal markers were not induced, suggesting a partial EMT response. COX-2 and migration were induced only in benign HaCaT derivatives. Malignant derivatives did not induce COX-2 PLX4032 supplier in response to TGF-beta 1 treatment, thus emphasizing the role of inflammation in EMT response of benign cells.
Conclusions: TGF-beta 1 operates via distinct mechanisms in inducing EMT and metastasis, and supporting this we show that TGF-beta 1 induces COX-2 and promotes the migration of benign cells, but
does not further augment the migration of malignant cells, indicating their resistance to TGF-beta 1 in the context of motility. (c) 2010 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heterotrimeric G-proteins have been implicated in having a role in many plant signalling pathways. To understand further the role of G-proteins, a preliminary experiment was performed to assess the impact of the G alpha subunit loss-of-function mutation gpa1-1 on the Arabidopsis transcriptome. The analysis indicated that the G alpha subunit
may play a role in response to jasmonic acid (JA). Consistent with this, G alpha mutants showed a reduced response to JA in inhibition of chlorophyll accumulation and root growth, whilst G alpha gain-of-function plants overexpressing G alpha showed Selleck C188-9 the opposite phenotype. The levels of JA and related compounds were unaffected in the gpa1-1 mutant, as was autoregulation of the Allene Oxide Synthase (AOS) gene that encodes
a key enzyme for JA biosynthesis. In contrast, further analyses check details using G alpha loss- and gain-of-function Arabidopsis lines indicated that G alpha positively modulates the expression of the Vegetative Storage Protein (VSP) gene. This indicates that the G alpha subunit regulates a subset of JA-regulated genes defining a branch point in this signalling pathway in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of the impact of G alpha loss of function upon the JA-regulated transcriptome using Arabidopsis full genome arrays indicated that up to 29% of genes that are > 2-fold regulated by JA in the wild type are misregulated in the G alpha mutant. This supports the observation that a significant proportion of, but not all, JA-regulated gene expression is mediated by G alpha.”
“Anomalies in the magnetization of single-crystal BaMn2.49Ru3.51O11 at temperatures T-1=183 K, T-2=171 K, and T-3=128 K, signal complex magnetic order induced by competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic correlations and magnetic frustration within the Kagome (hexagonal ab-) plane.