Before the initiation of the

study, the animals were test

Before the initiation of the

study, the animals were tested for S. dysenteriae 1 and S. flexneri 2a infections by ELISA against lipopolysaccharides of test pathogens. Institutional animal ethical committee granted approval to conduct this study. The invasive ability of the strains was confirmed using the guinea-pig keratoconjunctivitis test (Sereny, 1955). The conjunctival sac of one eye of each guinea-pig was inoculated with 109 CFU of the test strain and CP-673451 clinical trial observed for the development of keratoconjunctivitis after 1–3 days. Forty guinea-pigs were assigned randomly to four groups, each group with 10 animals. For the determination of an effective infectious dose with and without cecal tie-up, 28 guinea-pigs were divided randomly into seven groups, each with four animals. In addition, 32 guinea-pigs were used in the immunological studies in four groups, each with eight animals. Of these, two groups each were used for immunization with heat-killed S. dysenteriae 1 (NT4907) and S. flexneri 2a (B294) to evaluate the protective efficacy and the rest served as controls. All JQ1 datasheet the experiments were performed twice. In order to determine the infectious dose in a luminal model, six different doses (106, 107, 108, 109, 1010 and 1011 CFU mL−1) of the reference strain S. flexneri 2a (2457T) were experimented. After finding the required dose that confers significant signs of bacillary

dysentery, two different strains of HSP90 Shigella using guinea-pigs were tested. The test animal was sedated by an intramuscular injection of a mixture of ketamine (35 mg kg−1 body weight, Sterfil Laboratories Pvt Ltd, India) and xylazine (5 mg kg−1 body weight, AstraZeneca Pharma India Ltd, India). The cecum was brought out through a 3 cm

midline incision without compromising the blood supply. A permanent cecal tie was made 4 cm apart from the ileocecal junction so that the ligation completely obstructed the cecal lumen above this junction while maintaining the ileo–ceco–colic connection (Fig. 1). The purpose of this ligation was to prevent the entry of cecal contents into the proximal colon and disruption of water absorption. During the surgery, hydration of the exposed intestine was maintained with sterile PBS. At the cecocolic junction, 1 mL of test inoculum was injected into the lumen of the colon. The colon was placed back inside the abdominal cavity and the incision was closed. The incision site was checked twice a day for signs of infection, and each time, it was washed with a 1% chlorhexidine solution (Saatman et al., 1986) soaked with sterile gauze pads during the next 72 h. We did not find any wound infection in any of the guinea-pigs during the postsurgical period. After the surgery, the animals were allowed to consume food and water and were observed for the development of shigellosis for 48 h.

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