But what is the most important anomaly? There are multiple levels

But what is the most important anomaly? There are multiple levels of connectivity that could be discussed, but we will focus on: A reduction in local connectivity, without LY2157299 cost neuronal loss. Anomalies of long-range connectivity. Abnormal connection between neurons which should not be connected. The term deconnection will refer to a reduction in connectivity. Disconnectivity

will be used when the main effect of the lesion results in lengthening or scattering of the conduction time. Finally, we will speak about misconnectivity Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical when connections are erroneous, ie, between two neurons which should not be connected. The reader should be warned that this is not the way other authors use these terms, which arc generally considered to be interchangeable .33,52 Local (intracortical) connectivity There is a lack of neurological models of reduced local connectivity without neural loss. However, such models can be easily obtained by an impoverished environment.53 For example, breeding rats without Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical social interactions induces cortical shrinkage. This does not correspond to neuronal loss, but to a reduction in neuropiles and synapses.51-55 The same phenomenon of related gray matter adaptation to training is likely to also occur in man. Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Indeed, the size

of the posterior hippocampus has been showed to be increased in London taxi drivers, probably because of job-related overuse.56-57 We recently observed in normal subjects that the more they spontaneously used their memory network, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical more gray matter they had in the stimulated regions. Thus, gray matter volume can adapt, depending on practice (Foucher et al, unpublished material). Thus, we can use impoverished environment as a model of reduced local connectivity without neuronal loss. Though we lack systematic studies, there is no evidence to date that, without increasing the level of stress, impoverishment Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical is sufficient to increase the risk of schizophrenia.

Neither is there any observation of the topography of gray matter reduction in nonpsychiatric subjects living in an impoverished environment. However, turning the question around, the observation that environmental factors possibly induce cortical atrophy could lead to another interpretation of the no anatomical problem in patients. It may be that some of the gray matter reduction observed in patients corresponds to their way of living, eg, avoiding social contact could simulate the cortical shrinkage seen in rats after social deprivation.10 In fact, it might be that the so-called hypotrophy could be explained in the same way. Relatives could display gray matter reduction because of behavior related to an overt or subclinical schizoid or schizotypal personality disorder. There is much less argument for environmental effect on white matter, but one should consider looking at it more closely. In short, there is no evidence that a reduction in local connectivity alone could provoke schizophrenia.

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