DGGE patterns of 16S rRNA were entered into a database using the

DGGE patterns of 16S rRNA were entered into a database using the Bionumerics software (Bionumerics 5.1, Applied Maths BVBA, Sim-Martens-Latem Belgium). The patterns were analyzed using Dice similarity coefficients using unweighted pair groups methods with arithmetic average algorithms

built into Bionumerics. The position tolerance and optimization was set at 1% and 0.5% respectively. Acknowledgements Financial support for this research project was provided by the GAPS and SAGES funding programs of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. We also thank the Public Health Agency for providing technical support to the project. We gratefully acknowledge Shaun Cook, Lorna Selinger, Ruth Barbieri, Wendi

Smart, and Cassidy Klima for their technical assistance. The authors appreciate the excellent Selleck PD0325901 animal care skills of the staff at the Lethbridge Research Centre Research Feedlot. References 1. Barton MD: Antibiotic use in animal feed and its impact on human health. Nutr Res Rev 2000, 13: 279–299.PubMedCrossRef 2. van den Bogaard AE, Stobberingh EE: Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics links between animals and humans. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2000, 14: 327–335.PubMedCrossRef 3. Unc A, Goss MJ: Transport of bacteria from manure and protection of water resources. Appl Soil Ecol 2004, 25: 1–18..CrossRef 4. Duriez P, Topp E: Temporal dynamics and impact of manure storage on antibiotic resistance patterns and population structure of Escherichia coli isolates from a commercial swine farm. Appl learn more Environ Microbiol 2007, 73: 5486–5493.PubMedCrossRef 5. Ghosh S, LaPara TM: The effects of subtherapeutic antibiotic use in farm animals on the proliferation and persistence of antibiotic resistance among soil bacteria. ISME J 2007, 1: 191–203.PubMedCrossRef 6. Schmitt

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