Double immunfluorescence staining revealed that PGF(2 alpha)-immunopositive neurons expressed cytosolic phospholipases A(2), COX-2, and FP receptor. These results suggest that the major source of PGF(2 alpha) production immediately after KA injection was neurons of the hippocampal CA3 sector, hilus and dentate gyrus. These neurons exert PGF(2 alpha)-mediated functions via FP receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner and may play pathophysiological roles in the acute phase (30 min) of excitotoxicity. (C) 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights
“Hypoxia has been found in the atherosclerotic plaques of larger mammals, including humans. Whether hypoxia occurs in the plaques of standard mouse models with atherosclerosis has been controversial, given their small size. In this review, we summarize the findings of a recent report demonstrating that direct evidence of hypoxia Necrostatin-1 nmr can indeed be found in the plaques of mice deficient in apolipoprotein
E (apoE-/-mice). Furthermore, studies in vitro showed that hypoxia promoted lipid synthesis and reduced cholesterol efflux through the ABCA1 pathway, and that the transcription factor HIF-1 alpha mediated many, but not all, of the effects. These results are discussed in the context of the literature and clinical practice. LCL161 cell line (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“A database containing 800 datasets on the incidence of specific tumor types from 262 radiation carcinogenicity experiments identified in a comprehensive literature search through September 2000 was analyzed for evidence of hormesis. This database includes lifetime studies of tumorigenic responses in mice, rats, and dogs to exposures to alpha, beta, gamma, neutron, or x-ray radiation. A J-shaped dose response, in the form of a significant decreased response at some low dose followed by a significant increased response at a higher dose, click here was found in only four datasets from three experiments. Three of these datasets involved the same control animals and two also shared dosed animals; the J shape in the fourth dataset appeared to be the result of an outlier within
an otherwise monotonic dose response. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether there was an excess of dose groups with decreases in tumor response below that in controls at doses below no-observed-effect levels (NOELs) in individual datasets. Because the probability of a decreased response is generally not equal to the probability of an increased response even in the null case, the meta-analysis focused on comparing the number of statistically significant diminished responses to the number expected, assuming no dose effect below the NOEL. Only 54 dose groups out of the total of 2579 in the database had doses below the dataset-specific NOEL and that satisfied an a priori criterion for sufficient power to detect a reduced response. Among these 54, a liberal criterion for defining a significant decreases identified 15 such decreases, versus 54 x 0.2 = 10.