ects are also potentially implicated in these pathways, these res

ects are also potentially implicated in these pathways, these results warrant further discussion, even if the observed fold changes were selleck chemicals llc low. An association between lipid and car Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries bohydrate metabolism in salmon is not surprising given that the pathways of lipogenesis, lipolysis, glycolysis, Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries glu coneogenesis and pentose phosphate shunt are all inter related in the regulation of body energy homeostasis. In mammals, the role of LC PUFA as fuel partitioners involves both directing fatty acids away from anabolic and towards catabolic routes as well as enhancing glucose flux to glycogen, mediated by effects on SREBP 1 and transcription factors that regulate key genes of lipid metabolism and glycolysis.

Similar mechanisms may operate in fish but differences are likely given that carni vorous fish like salmon have low capacity to use carbohy Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries drate and appear to show features of glucose intolerance. Nonetheless, dietary n 3 n 6 ratio has been shown to influence mRNA levels of the glucose transpor ter GLUT4 in Atlantic salmon muscle, with some reflec tion in plasma glucose. In addition to a decreased hexokinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression, complete replacement Inhibitors,Modulators,Libraries of FM and FO by vegetable alternatives in rainbow trout resulted in a slightly increased expression of glycerol kinase, as observed here. This enzyme is at the intersection of lipid carbohydrate metabolism and over expression of this gene in human muscle and rat hepatoma cells resulted in higher TAG synthesis and up regulation of the pentose phosphate pathway providing reducing power for lipogenesis.

Panserat et al. hypothe sised that the up regulation of glycerol kinase may be related to higher lipid biosynthesis in liver when trout were fed plant based diets. Similarly, our results, asso ciated with the observed changes in FAS mRNA Carfilzomib when VO replaced FO, suggest a possible relationship with lipogenesis. Also possibly related with this was the up regulation of two different biotinidase clones with the potential to increase availability of substrates for FAS and or gluconeogenesis in VO fed fish. This gene, besides being involved in the regulation of gene expres sion, including genes of glucose metabolism, codes for an enzyme that recycles biotin, which is a co factor for sev eral carboxylases responsible for production of substrates for lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis.

Another gene affected by diet was alpha enolase, which was slightly down regulated in Lean fish fed VO. A similar effect was observed in liver of salmon fed rapeseed oil in comparison to FO. This glycolytic enzyme participates in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate, a key intermedi ate at the intersection of multiple metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis. Thus, this might view more result in lower levels of pyruvate for conversion to acetyl CoA in VO fed fish. This result does not necessarily conflict with an increase in lipogenesis given that, in fish, carbon skeletons for de novo fatty acid production are mainly derive

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