Figure  3a reveals that the imperfect internal quantum process ca

Figure  3a reveals that the imperfect internal quantum process caused by the surface recombination and other carrier loss mechanisms results in a great degradation on the electrical properties of the top (a-Si:H) cell, which is reflected

as a much discrepancy between P a-Si:H and EQEa-Si:H especially at short-wavelength region. However, for the bottom junction, P μc-Si:H ~ EQEμc-Si:H is always observed since the material defects are much less and the bottom junction is far from the top surface where the surface recombination is strong. Spectral integrations to the EQE spectra indicate that under TE (TM) illumination, J aSi can be risen by 2.11 (2.35) mA/cm2, resulting in the rise of 2.23 mA/cm2 in the top junction under an learn more unpolarized injection. However, the raise of photocurrent in

bottom junction is especially dramatic (4.63 mA/cm2), which has been actually expected from the multi-peaked absorption spectra. Therefore, although significant improvement on the absorption and light-conversion capability has been realized by two-dimensionally nanopatterning a-Si:H. The performance gain has not been evenly distributed to the top and bottom junctions, leading to a photocurrent Kinase Inhibitor Library supplier mismatch high up to 2 mA/cm2. It is found that the incorporation of a ZnO intermediate layer between the junctions can increase the absorption and photocurrent of the top junction through light reflection from the a-Si:H/ZnO/μc-Si:H interfaces [13]. However, a too thick ZnO layer leads to rapidly degraded total photocurrent; therefore, its thickness has to be designed carefully.

According to our calculation, a ZnO layer with thickness of 18 nm is an optimal design for realizing the best photocurrent match without degrading J tot noticeably. EQE spectra of a-Si:H and μc-Si:H junctions incorporating Urease the intermediate ZnO layer are given in Figure  3b. Comparing to Figure  3a, it can be seen that for wavelength between 500 and 700 nm, the EQEa-Si:H has been increased for a higher J aSi. Since less light is coupled into μc-Si:H layer, J μcSi is slightly lowered for better current match. By integrating 2D nanopattern and ZnO intermediate designs into the a-Si:H/μc-Si:H tandem TFSCs, J sc can be up to 12.83 mA/cm2 under an unpolarized solar illumination, which has been enhanced by 35.34% compared to the planar system (i.e., increases by 3.35 mA/cm2 from 9.48 mA/cm2). Finally, based on the previously calculated J sc and the dark current densities in top and bottom junctions under continuously increasing forward electric biases (V), the current–voltage characteristics of the proposed a-Si:H/μc-Si tandem TFSCs obtained are explored and illustrated in Figure  4. For an accurate prediction of the electrical performance, series and shunt resistances (R s and R sh) of the solar devices have been taken into account.

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