For live attenuated strains containing other disabling


For live attenuated strains containing other disabling

mutations, sustaining colonisation by inclusion of capsule may be a strategy to enhance the immunogenicity of the non-capsular antigens present in the strain and induce protection against invasive disease. The authors are grateful to the staff at the UCL Biological Services Unit for assistance with animal maintenance. This work was undertaken at UCLH/UCL who received a proportion of funding from the Department of Health’s NIHR Biomedical Research PF-06463922 mouse Centre’s funding scheme. JMC was supported by a Clinical Research Training Fellowship from the Medical Research Council (G0700829). “
“The authors regret that there was an error in their paper. The primers reported for cloning the DR2 domain of H. somni IbpA were not PI3K inhibitor correct. The error was present in the original data. The correct forward and reverse primers used for IbpA DR2 (p. 4507) are as follows: 5′-AGCTCCATGGGAAAATCATCTCCGCAAGAG-3′; 5′-AGCTGGATCCTGATTTTTTTGCCAACTCTTTTAAA-3′. These primers were published in a later paper

by Geertsema RS, Zekarias B, La Franco Scheuch L, Worby C, Russo R, Gershwin LJ, Herdman DS, Lo K, Corbeil LB. IbpA DR2 subunit immunization protects calves against Histophilus somni pneumonia. Vaccine 2011;29:4805–12. “
“The authors wish to update the corresponding author’s contact email to: [email protected]. “
“TB remains one of the world’s most serious infectious diseases and is responsible for more than 2 million deaths each year [1]. The only available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), confers some protection against disseminated TB in childhood but is largely ineffective at protecting against adult pulmonary disease [2]. Thus, a more effective TB vaccine is urgently needed. New vaccines for TB are assessed on measures

including safety, the ability to confer Tryptophan synthase protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) challenge in preclinical animal models, and the ability to induce an antigen specific IFN-γ immune response. Although there is no immune correlate of protection for TB, impairment of IFN-γ and IL-12 signalling in humans is associated with susceptibility to mycobacterial disease and the measurement of antigen specific IFN-γ remains the primary immune outcome in Phase I testing of new TB vaccine candidates [3]. We have previously reported that recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) expressing antigen 85A from MTB (MVA85A) is well-tolerated and enhances the frequency of antigen-specific IFN-γ producing T cells in adults, children and infants previously vaccinated with BCG [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9] and [10]. We have also shown that antigen specific T cells induced by MVA85A are highly polyfunctional, and can express IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, MIP1-β and IL-17 [11] and [12]. However, to date we have not performed any dose-finding studies in UK adults.

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