For this reason, treatment interruption or intermittent therapy i

For this reason, treatment interruption or intermittent therapy is not recommended. Once ART has been started in a patient with HIV infection, it should be continued. Temporary interruptions of 1–2 days can usually be managed and are unlikely to be associated with adverse outcomes. Longer interruptions of ART should only be considered in exceptional

circumstances. These may include: After pregnancy, in women who have taken ART during pregnancy to prevent mother-to-child transmission, but do not otherwise require treatment. After early initiation of ART (CD4 cell counts >500 cells/μL) (e.g. when started to reduce infectiousness). Severe drug toxicity (e.g. hepatotoxicity). Severe psychological distress. Guidance on pharmacokinetic considerations when stopping ART is contained in Section 6.2.3 Stopping therapy: pharmacological considerations. “
“The pathogenesis of HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is poorly understood. We examined markers of oxidative stress, plasma antioxidants and liver disease in HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected adults. Demographics, medical history, and proof of infection with HIV, hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HCV were obtained. HIV viral load, CD4 cell count, complete blood count (CBC), complete GSK2118436 solubility dmso metabolic panel, lipid

profile, and plasma concentrations of zinc, selenium, and vitamins A and E were determined. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase concentrations were obtained as measures of oxidative stress. Aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI) and fibrosis index (FIB-4) markers were calculated. Significant differences were found

between HIV/HCV-coinfected and HIV-monoinfected participants Farnesyltransferase in levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (mean±standard deviation: 51.4±50.6 vs. 31.9±43.1 U/L, respectively; P=0.014), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (56.2±40.9 vs. 34.4±30.2 U/L; P<0.001), APRI (0.52±0.37 vs. 0.255±0.145; P=0.0001), FIB-4 (1.64±.0.91 vs. 1.03±0.11; P=0.0015) and plasma albumin (3.74±0.65 vs. 3.94±0.52 g/dL; P=0.038). There were no significant differences in CD4 cell count, HIV viral load or antiretroviral therapy (ART) between groups. Mean MDA was significantly higher (1.897±0.835 vs. 1.344± 0.223 nmol/mL, respectively; P=0.006) and plasma antioxidant concentrations were significantly lower [vitamin A, 39.5 ± 14.1 vs. 52.4±16.2 μg/dL, respectively (P=0.0004); vitamin E, 8.29±2.1 vs. 9.89±4.5 μg/mL (P=0.043); zinc, 0.61±0.14 vs. 0.67±0.15 mg/L (P=0.016)] in the HIV/HCV-coinfected participants than in the HIV-monoinfected participants, and these differences remained significant after adjusting for age, gender, CD4 cell count, HIV viral load, injecting drug use and race.

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