Highly specific

Highly specific PXD101 chemical structure drugs target the activity of eIF4E. Indeed, the antitumor action of mTOR complex 1 ( mTORc1) blockers like rapamycin relies on their capability to inhibit eIF4E assembly into functional

eIF4F complexes. eIF4E biology, from its inception to recent pharmacological targeting, is proof-of-principle that translational control is druggable. The case for eIF4E is not isolated. The translational machinery is involved in the biology of cancer through many other mechanisms. First, untranslated sequences on mRNAs as well as noncoding RNAs regulate the translational efficiency of mRNAs that are central for tumor progression. Second, other initiation factors like eIF6 show a tumorigenic potential by acting downstream of oncogenic pathways. Third, genetic alterations in components of the translational apparatus underlie an entire class of inherited syndromes known as ` ribosomopathies’ that are associated with increased cancer risk. Taken together, data suggest that in spite of their evolutionary conservation and ubiquitous nature, variations in the activity and levels of ribosomal proteins and translation factors generate highly specific effects. Beside, as the structures

and biochemical activities of several noncoding RNAs and initiation factors are known, these factors may be amenable to rational pharmacological targeting. The future is to design highly specific drugs targeting the translational apparatus.”
“Thermobifida fusca is an aerobic, thermophilic, cellulose degrading bacterium identified in heated organic materials. This study applied iTRAQ quantitative BLZ945 in vitro proteomic NVP-LDE225 solubility dmso analysis to the cellular and membrane proteomes

of T. fusca grown in presence and absence of cellulose to elucidate the cellular processes induced by cellulose nutrient. Using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach, 783 cytosolic and 181 membrane proteins expressed during cellulose hydrolysis were quantified with <= 1% false discovery rate. The comparative iTRAQ quantification revealed considerable induction in the expression levels and up-regulation of specific proteins in cellulosic medium than non-cellulosic medium. The regulated proteins in cellulosic medium were grouped under central carbohydrate metabolism such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathways, citric acid cycle, starch, sugars, pyruvate, propanoate and butanoate metabolism; energy metabolism that includes oxidative phosphorylation, nitrogen, methane and sulfur metabolism; fatty acid metabolism, amino acid metabolic pathways, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and main cellular genetic information processing functions like replication, transcription, translation, and cell wall synthesis; and environmental information processing (membrane transport and signal transduction). The results demonstrated cellulose induced several metabolic pathways during cellulose utilization. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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