It is found that the far-field light scattering of a single capsu

It is found that the far-field light scattering of a single capsule depends on its volume, shape, and orientation: capsules with bigger equivalent spherical diameter, smaller aspect ratio, and horizontal orientation demonstrate stronger

light scattering especially at large scattering angle. Using Monte Carlo approach, we simulated and optimized the light harvesting efficiency of the cell. Two multilayer composite photoanodes containing orderly or randomly oriented capsules are proposed. DSCs composed of these two photoanodes are promising for higher efficiencies because of their efficient light collection and superior electron collection. These results will provide practical guidance to the design and optimization of the photoanodes for DSCs. (C) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“The current state of surgery for vestibular schwannomas (VSs) is the result of a century of Cyclopamine order step-by-step technical progress by groundbreaking surgeons who transformed the procedure from its hazardous infancy and high mortality rate to its current state of safety and low morbidity rate. Harvey Cushing advocated bilateral suboccipital

decompression and developed the method of intracapsular tumor enucleation. Walter Dandy supported the unilateral suboccipital approach and developed the technique of gross-total tumor resection. Microsurgical techniques revolutionized VS surgery to its current status. In this article, the authors review the

early history of surgery for VSs selleck compound with an emphasis on contributions from pioneering surgeons. The authors examined the Cushing Brain Tumor Registry for clues regarding the bona fide intention of Cushing for the resection of these tumors. (DOI: 10.3171/2008.3.17473)”
“Alphaviruses are RNA viruses transmitted between vertebrate hosts by arthropod vectors, primarily mosquitoes. How arthropods counteract alphaviruses or viruses per se is not very well understood. Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying innate immunity against bacterial and fungal infections. In this study we report the use of a novel system to analyze replication of Sindbis virus (type species of the alphavirus genus) RNA following expression of a Sindbis virus replicon RNA from the fly genome. We demonstrate deficits in the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway enhance viral replication while mutations in the Toll pathway fail to affect replication. Similar results were observed with intrathoracic injections of whole virus and confirmed in cultured mosquito cells. These findings show that the Imd pathway mediates an antiviral response to Sindbis virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an antiviral role for the Imd pathway in insects.”
“A 42-year-old virgin woman was admitted to our clinic with increasing menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea for several months.

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