OBJECTIVE: We studied the expression and phosphorylation of diffe

OBJECTIVE: We studied the expression and phosphorylation of different intracellular signaling molecules in the IA wall compared with IA morphological features to understand better the

cellular pathways involved in IA development and wall degeneration.

METHODS: Nine ruptured and 17 unruptured human IA samples were collected intra-operatively. The expression levels and phosphorylation state of 3 mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]), Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and Akt were determined by Western blotting. AZD1480 The localization of signaling proteins was determined by immunofluorescence. From 3-dimensional segmentation of computed tomography angiographic data, size and shape indexes were calculated.


We found a 5-fold difference in phospho-Bad levels between ruptured and unruptured IAs. Phospho-mTOR was downregulated 2.5-fold in ruptured IAs. Phospho-p54 JNK, phospho-p38, and phospho-Akt levels correlated Selleckchem CH5183284 positively with IA size. Phospho-CREB levels were significantly associated with nonsphericity and ellipticity indexes. Phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 correlated negatively with undulation index.

CONCLUSION: The signaling pathway profile (apoptosis, cell proliferation, stress signaling) differs between ruptured and unruptured IAs and is associated with IA geometry. Our results increase the knowledge of IA development and wall degeneration.”
“In this study, we examined HPA axis responses to acute psychosocial stress in retation to effort-reward-imbalance (ERI) and overcommitment (OC) to test whether chronic stress at work is accompanied by attered HPA axis stress responses in teachers. According to Siegrist’s work stress model, ERI reflects stress due to a tack of reciprocity between personal costs and gains at work, whereas CC is conceptualized as a personality trait mainly characterized by the inability to withdraw below from work obligations. Fifty-three

medication-free, non-smoking, healthy teachers (33 women, 20 men, 29-63 years, mean age 49.9 +/- 8.58 years) were confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used standardized stress protocol to induce acute psychosociat stress in the laboratory. ACTH (five samples), total plasma (six samples) and free salivary cortisol (eight samples) were repeatedly measured before and after challenge. In the total group, ERI and OC were only marginally associated with HPA axis responses to acute stress. However, in the subgroup of responders (N = 30) high levels of OC were significantly associated with lower ACTH (p = 0.03) as well as plasma (p = 0.02) and salivary cortisol (p < 0.001) responses and results remained significant controlling for depressive symptoms.

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