Preoperative CT scans were analyzed regarding petrous bone air ce

Preoperative CT scans were analyzed regarding petrous bone air cell volume, area of visible pneumatization at the level of the internal auditory canal (IAC), tumor grade, and sex.

RESULTS: Women developed nearly

half as many CSF fistulas (2.7%) as men (5.2%). The mean volume of the petrous bone air cells was 10.97 mL (SD, 4.9; range, 1.38-27.25). It was significantly lower for women (mean, 9.23 mL; SD, 3.8) than for men (mean, 12.5 mL; SD, 5.28; P = .0008). The mean air cell volume of CSF-fistula patients was 13.72 mL (SD, 5.22). The difference concerning the air cell volume between patients who developed CSF fistulas and patients from the control group was significant (P = .0042). There was a significant positive correlation between the air cell volume and the area of pneumatization

in one CT slide at the level of the IAC.

CONCLUSION: The higher incidence find more of CSF fistulas in men compared with women can be explained by means of differently pneumatized petrous bones. A high amount of petrous bone pneumatization has to be considered as a risk factor for the development of postoperative CSF fistula after vestibular schwannoma surgery.”
“Background High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. selleck compound We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.

Methods Calpain Participants in our prospective cohort analysis were from a randomised placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2, and their HIV-1 seronegative partners. At enrolment, HIV-1 infected participants had CD4 counts of 250 cells per mu L or greater and did not meet national

guidelines for ART initiation; during 24 months of follow-up, CD4 counts were measured every 6 months and ART was initiated in accordance with national guidelines. Uninfected partners were tested for HIV-1 every 3 months. The primary outcome was genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission within the study partnership. We assessed rates of HIV-1 transmission by ART status of infected participants.

Findings 3381 couples were eligible for analysis. 349 (10%) participants with HIV-1 initiated ART during the study, at a median CD4 cell count of 198 (IQR 161-265) cells per mu L. Only one of 103 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmissions was from an infected participant who had started ART, corresponding to transmission rates of 0.37 (95% CI 0.09-2.04) per 100 person-years in those who had initiated treatment and 2.24 (1.84-2.72) per 100 person-years in those who had not-a 92% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.08,95% CI 0.00-0.57, p=0.004). In participants not on ART, the highest HIV-1 transmission rate (8.79 per 100 person-years) was from those with CD4 cell counts lower than 200 cells per pL.

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