Preoperative CT scans were analyzed regarding petrous bone air cell volume, area of visible pneumatization at the level of the internal auditory canal (IAC), tumor grade, and sex.
RESULTS: Women developed nearly
half as many CSF fistulas (2.7%) as men (5.2%). The mean volume of the petrous bone air cells was 10.97 mL (SD, 4.9; range, 1.38-27.25). It was significantly lower for women (mean, 9.23 mL; SD, 3.8) than for men (mean, 12.5 mL; SD, 5.28; P = .0008). The mean air cell volume of CSF-fistula patients was 13.72 mL (SD, 5.22). The difference concerning the air cell volume between patients who developed CSF fistulas and patients from the control group was significant (P = .0042). There was a significant positive correlation between the air cell volume and the area of pneumatization
in one CT slide at the level of the IAC.
CONCLUSION: The higher incidence find more of CSF fistulas in men compared with women can be explained by means of differently pneumatized petrous bones. A high amount of petrous bone pneumatization has to be considered as a risk factor for the development of postoperative CSF fistula after vestibular schwannoma surgery.”
“Background High plasma HIV-1 RNA concentrations are associated with increased risk of HIV-1 transmission. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces plasma HIV-1 concentrations. selleck compound We aimed to assess the effect of ART use by patients infected with HIV-1 on risk of transmission to their uninfected partners.
Methods Calpain Participants in our prospective cohort analysis were from a randomised placebo-controlled trial that enrolled heterosexual African adults who were seropositive for both HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2, and their HIV-1 seronegative partners. At enrolment, HIV-1 infected participants had CD4 counts of 250 cells per mu L or greater and did not meet national
guidelines for ART initiation; during 24 months of follow-up, CD4 counts were measured every 6 months and ART was initiated in accordance with national guidelines. Uninfected partners were tested for HIV-1 every 3 months. The primary outcome was genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission within the study partnership. We assessed rates of HIV-1 transmission by ART status of infected participants.
Findings 3381 couples were eligible for analysis. 349 (10%) participants with HIV-1 initiated ART during the study, at a median CD4 cell count of 198 (IQR 161-265) cells per mu L. Only one of 103 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmissions was from an infected participant who had started ART, corresponding to transmission rates of 0.37 (95% CI 0.09-2.04) per 100 person-years in those who had initiated treatment and 2.24 (1.84-2.72) per 100 person-years in those who had not-a 92% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.08,95% CI 0.00-0.57, p=0.004). In participants not on ART, the highest HIV-1 transmission rate (8.79 per 100 person-years) was from those with CD4 cell counts lower than 200 cells per pL.