salmonis In this context, and considering that key virulence gen

salmonis. In this context, and considering that key virulence genes that distinguish pathogenic bacteria are generally carried on transmissible CT99021 cell line genetic elements (Hacker et al., 1997), it would not be surprising if the genomic complexity of P. salmonis included other types of MGEs, a feasible alternative that our laboratory is currently investigating. In summary, this is the first description of a putatively functional IS in the genome of P. salmonis. Our results reveal that ISPsa2 shares high similarity to previously described ISs – specifically to IS240

elements, which are members of the IS6 family. As shown in Table 2, our new IS shares the key features that distinguish the IS6 family elements, such as length, IR size and END sequence. The putative transposase encoded within ISPsa2 (Tnp-Psa) carries conserved motifs that are also found in other transposases (Fig. 2). The presence of a putative promoter region in frame with Tnp-Psa in ISPsa2 strongly suggests a regulated

self-expression for the IS and may represent a preliminary indication of the high genomic plasticity of this fish bacterial pathogen. Additionally, the ISPsa2 sequence appears to be in other strains of the pathogen, or at least in three isolates obtained from epizootics in 2010 (Fig. 3). This work was CP-690550 supplier supported by Innova Corfo grant 05CT6IPD-22 to S.M., C.C. and V.H. and by Conicyt (Beca Nacional de Doctorado) to F.G. “
“We report the effect of glutathione and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), assayed by a nitro blue tetrazolium reaction, on the antibacterial action of ciprofloxacin,

gentamicin and chloramphenicol in Staphylococcus aureus 22 resistant to ciprofloxacin SB-3CT and gentamicin, and in S. aureus ATCC 29213 sensitive to the above three antibiotics. The association of glutathione with ciprofloxacin or gentamicin significantly reduced the value of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in resistant S. aureus 22, measured using the macrodilution method, with a concomitant increase of intracellular ROS and a decrease of extracellular ROS. However, glutathione did not induce modifications in MIC or ROS generated by chloramphenicol. Furthermore, in the sensitive S. aureus ATCC 29213, the association of glutathione with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin or chloramphenicol did not induce any significant variations of MIC or ROS. There was a correlation between the stimulus of intracellular ROS and the decrease of MIC caused by exogenous glutathione. According to the results obtained, it is possible to modify the sensitivity of resistant strains of S. aureus by the addition of exogenous glutathione.

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