Table 6 The level of genetic distinction between each pair of dif

Table 6 The level of genetic distinction between each pair of different populations (northern, eastern, and central) Assemblage/Populations Level of genetic distinction   F ST P -value B/northern vs B/central 0.132 0.44 B/northern vs B/eastern 0.044 0.36 B/central vs B/eastern

0.103 0.31 R406 mw Test for neutrality and recombination The values of Tajima’s D statistical estimation are shown in Table 7. Across all populations and in each population, the test gave a tendency for negative values that is indicative of the occurrence of selection pressure. However, these results were not statistically significant (Table 7). Table 7 Test for neutrality for all populations, northern, central, eastern, and plus all sequences from GenBank Assemblage/Populations Tajima’s D B/All -0.83636 B/northern -0.46236 B/central -0.65253 B/eastern -0.79615 B/All+GenBank -a aNot analyzed For the test of recombination, the LY294002 mouse phylogenetic network reconstructed from the gdh gene fragment obtained in this study and GenBank partially gave a treelike structure, except the

area at the center of the tree. The network was separated into two large branches, according to subassemblages BIII and BIV, with long and short branches extending this website from both of them (Figure 2). The conflicting signals were explicitly observed in both branches, which implied the alternative phylogenetic histories existed separately existed in both subassemblages. Of 75 sequences from 14 countries, they seemingly dispersed throughout both branches with no specific geographical significances observed. Additionally,

the four-gamete test detected recombination events within the sequence data of this study in both subassemblages BIII and BIV, suggesting intra-assemblage Bacterial neuraminidase recombination among them. In addition, the same results still persisted when the sequence data from GenBank were additionally included in the test. The significance of recombination identified by the four-gamete test was further emphasized with the additional implementation of the Φ test. The results from this test were almost consistent to the former test and showed statistical significances within all dataset, except for the data of subassemblage BIV from this study alone (Table 8). Figure 2 Phylogenetic network was built by Neighbor-Net using gdh sequence fragments from this study and from those of GenBank. The numbers labeled in the network are from Table 1. The magnified image in the closed box shows details of the area covered by dotted box. Table 8 Test for recombination for subassemblages BIII and BIV using dataset of this study and dataset of this study plus dataset from GenBank Assemblage/Dataset Four-gametea Φ BIII/this study Yes Yes* BIV/this study Yes No BIII/this study+GenBank Yes Yes* BIV/this study+GenBank Yes Yes* aThe test does not assign significance *P < 0.01 Discussion This study focused on genetic diversity of G.

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