The anatomical structures of Meckel cave and the related zones ad

The anatomical structures of Meckel cave and the related zones adjacent to Meckel cave were observed and measured with endoscopic endonasal approach. Results: Endoscopic endonasal, endo-maxillary sinus, and endo-pterygoid GSK461364 purchase process approaches were successfully applied in observation of the anatomical structures of meckel cave and the rerated zones adjacent to Meckel cave and in measurement of distances between related anatomical structures for each case of samples. The

relevant data were obtained. The distance between the front mouth of palatovaginal canal and vidian canal was 21.4 +/- 7 mm, the distance between opening of sphenoid sinus to the upper margin of the choana was 22.3 +/- 2.8 mm, the distance between the opening of vidian and foramen Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor rotundum was 7.57 +/- 0.7 mm and the length of the pterygoid canal was 13.3 +/- 1.2 mm. Based on these data, the positions of the related important structures can be roughly located during surgical operation and various important structures in Meckel cave and its adjacent zones can be found out in a convenient and safe way. Conclusion: 1) It is feasible to use endonasal endoscopic approach to perform surgical operation in Meckel cave; 2) Use of endonasal endoscopic approach can protect and fully take the advantage of the vidian nerve to locate the position of foramina lacerum

of the internal carotid artery during surgical operation; and 3) the observational and experimental data obtained with this approach can provide the rational basis for clinical operation procedures.”
“Objective-Hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 alpha (HNF4A) is a transcription factor that influences plasma triglyceride metabolism via an as of yet unknown mechanism. In this study, we searched for the critical protein that mediates this effect using different human model systems.\n\nMethods and Results-Up-and downregulation of HNF4A in human hepatoma Huh7 and HepG2 cells was associated with marked changes in the secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). Short interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition

of HNF4A influenced the expression of several genes, including acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1). siRNA knockdown Cyclosporin A concentration of DGAT1 reduced DGAT1 activity and decreased the secretion of TRLs. No additive effects of combined siRNA inhibition of HNF4A and DGAT1 were found on the secretion of TRLs, whereas the increase in TRL secretion induced by HNF4A overexpression was largely abolished by DGAT1 siRNA inhibition. A putative binding site for HNF4A was defined by in silico and in vitro methods. HNF4A and DGAT1 expressions were analyzed in 80 human liver samples, and significant relationships were observed between HNF4A and DGAT1 mRNA levels (r(2) = 0.50, P<0.0001) and between DGAT1 mRNA levels and plasma triglyceride concentration (r(2) = 0.09, P<0.01).

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