The morphine+naloxone group of rats additionally received naloxone (5 mg/kg) at the end of the protocol. The control group rats received no injections or intervention. The amygdala and CA1 regions of the morphine, saline-treated and intact animals were isolated and prepared for real-time PCR analysis. Results: Administration of naloxone induced withdrawal signs in morphine-treated animals. The results showed a significant decrease in Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical TRPV1 gene expression in the amygdala (P<0.05) but not the CA1 region of morphine dependent rats. Conclusion: TRPV1 receptors may be involved in morphine-induced dependence. Keywords:
Vanilloid receptor subtype 1, CA1 region, Amygdala, Morphine, Rats Introduction Opioids are important drugs in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, chronic use of opioids results in the development of antinociceptive tolerance and physical dependence. Dependence is revealed by a complex withdrawal syndrome associating physical (or somatic) signs with an intensely aversive emotional state.1 Historically, adenylyl cyclase, potassium and calcium channels, and the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical transmitter release have been considered in both opioid-induced analgesia and in antinociceptive tolerance. Today, diverse systems and targets are further implicated in the development Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical of opioid dependence. Transient receptor potential
vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a member of a large family of ligand-gated ion channels. It is activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient found in hot chili peppers, resiniferatoxin (RTX), noxious heat (>43°C), low pH2 and numerous mediators.3 These selleck kinase inhibitor channels are expressed in many brain regions4 with the highest level of TRPV1-like immunostaining in the hippocampus and cortex.5 While most studies on TRPV1 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical receptors have been conducted at the
level of the spinal cord and peripheral structures, few studies have focused on brain structures. There is several evidence regarding the existence of a functional interaction Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical between opioid and TRPV1 receptors. For example, Endres-Becker et al.6have reported morphine reduced capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia. Furthermore, Chen and pan found that blockade expression of TRPV1 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) increases the analgesic effects of opioids.7 TRPV1, therefore, seems to have an antagonist effect on opioids. On the other hand, it has been documented that excessive and chronic administration of opioids can lead to increased pain;8 knock out TRPV1 mice Oxymatrine do not develop this pain increase.9 It may be concluded that TRPV1 channels also play an important role in increased pain following chronic administration of opioids. Co-localization of TRPV1 and mu-opioid receptors (MOR) in DRG10 and the decrease in opioid ligand affinity in the rat brain upon capsaicin treatments11 also suggest the existence of a functional interaction. Previous studies have shown the involvement of both dorsal hippocampus and amygdala in opioid-induced conditioned place preference (reward).