“The reaction between carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and copper (II) nitrate produces a new Cu (II) complex with nitrate as the counter anion. TGA, UV, and FTIR analyses confirmed that the coordination number of CDI in this complex is two. The acceleration effect of the complex in epoxy-dicyandiamide (DICY) curing systems has been evaluated
by DSC and TMA, and the increasing viscosity of the mixture was monitored during the storage. The results revealed that the complex is not only very effective for the acceleration of epoxy-DICY systems, leading to a rapid gelation within 21 min at 120 degrees C, but it is also chemically stable at ambient temperature. This is reflected by the slow increase of viscosity of the accelerated curing systems stored at 35 degrees C, even over 56 days. In addition, the effects of the [Cu(CDI)(2)](2+) TH-302 mouse complex with different counter anions, that is, bromide, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phthalate, and acetate, were compared using a series of tests. By comparing with N,N-dimethyl-N-phenylurea (fenuron), the widely used latent accelerator for DICY-epoxy curing systems, the complexes with bromide and nitride were found to be better, both regarding storage stability and for their acceleration effect. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2013, 51, 3470-3476″
“Background: Tolerance and resistance provide animals with two distinct strategies
to fight infectious pathogens and may exhibit different evolutionary dynamics. However, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in the case of animal diseases under selleck chemicals llc commercial constraints.\n\nMethods: The paper proposes a method to simultaneously describe (1) the dynamics of transmission of a contagious pathogen between animals, (2) the growth and death of the pathogen within infected hosts and (3) the effects on their performances. The effectiveness of increasing individual levels of tolerance and resistance is evaluated by the number of infected animals and the performance at the population level.\n\nResults: The model is applied to a particular set of parameters and different combinations of values. Given these
imputed values, it is shown that higher levels of individual tolerance should see more be more effective than increased levels of resistance in commercial populations. As a practical example, a method is proposed to measure levels of animal tolerance to bovine mastitis.\n\nConclusions: The model provides a general framework and some tools to maximize health and performances of a population under infection. Limits and assumptions of the model are clearly identified so it can be improved for different epidemiological settings.”
“Stresses based on aging and lifestyle can cause tissue damage. Repair of damage by tissue remodeling is often meditated by communications between parenchymal and stromal cells via cell cell contact or humoral factors.