These new families were coined with the resolvins and protectins<

These new families were coined with the resolvins and protectins

because they possess potent bioactions and novel chemical structures. The AZD6738 mapping of these new resolution circuits has already provided new avenues for appreciating the molecular basis of many inflammatory diseases. This presentation/mini review gives recent advances from our studies on resolvin and protectin biosynthesis and the actions of these novel mediators. These previously unappreciated families of lipid-derived mediators were originally isolated from murine models of acute inflammation captured during the natural spontaneous resolution phase. They are biosynthesized from omega-3 fatty acids and possess potent anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-fibrotic in vivo actions. These new families of endogenous pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory agonists were also used as biotemplates to design potent mimetics/analogs which were used to confirm each of their structures and specific functions. Moreover, together the identification of these mediators indicate that resolution is an active process at EPZ004777 concentration the tissue level in vivo as well as constitute

a new genus of anti-inflammatories with a previously unknown pro-resolving mechanism of

action. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Herbicides have been recognized check details as the main environmental factor associated with human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease(PD). Previous studies indicated that the exposure to glyphosate, a widely used herbicide, is possibly linked to Parkinsonism, however the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the neurotoxic effects of glyphosate in differentiated PC12 cells and discovered that it inhibited viability of differentiated PC12 cells in dose-and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, the results showed that glyphosate induced cell death via autophagy pathways in addition to activating apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, deactivation of Beclin-1 gene attenuated both apoptosis and autophagy in glyphosate treated differentiated PC12 cells, suggesting that Beclin-1 gene is involved in the crosstalk between the two mechanisms. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The influenza A virus NS1 protein contains a conserved 4-amino-acid-residue PDZ-ligand binding motif (PBM) at the carboxyl terminus that can function as a virulence determinant by targeting cellular PDZ proteins.

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