These rhythms are synchronized to the diurnal day/night cycle by

These rhythms are synchronized to the diurnal day/night cycle by environmental cues such as light and temperature. Output pathways check details link the clock to particular biological processes, ensuring that they peak in activity at the appropriate times of day or night. Recently, significant progress was

made in defining the mechanisms by which output pathways are activated at specific times. Here these issues are emphasized by describing how the clock regulates growth and development throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis thaliana, including seed germination, seedling growth, stress responses and the transition to flowering. This wide impact of the clock on growth and development appears to provide an advantage by enhancing growth and seed production in different environments.”
“Purpose: Recent comparisons of the impact of the surgical approach on pediatric pyeloplasty outcomes have generally incorporated a form of internal ureteral drainage. We hypothesized that the surgical approach does not affect outcomes in children who undergo unstented pyeloplasty and stenting offers no long-term benefit in those with pediatric pyeloplasty.

Materials and Methods: After receiving institutional review board approval we examined the records of all children who underwent initial pyeloplasty from December

2001 find more to December 2009. We compared unstented and stented pyeloplasties, and each surgical approach in the unstented group.

Results: During the study period 367 pyeloplasties were performed, including 231 unstented and 136 stented procedures. When comparing unstented many to stented pyeloplasties, there was no difference in the complication or failure rate. Of unstented pyeloplasties 71, 67 and 93 were done using a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach, a flank approach and dorsal lumbotomy, respectively. There were 5 failures, of which 2 were laparoscopic,

2 used a flank approach and 1 used dorsal lumbotomy (p = 0.51). A total of 31 patients, including 10 treated with a laparoscopic approach, 3 with a flank approach and 18 with dorsal lumbotomy (p = 0.02), required second procedures, of which 24 were temporary drainage for a urine leak. Univariate analysis of factors associated with secondary procedures in the unstented pyeloplasty group showed that only surgical approach was significant (p = 0.05).

Conclusions: In pediatric pyeloplasty there is no significant difference in outcome between stented and unstented repairs. In unstented repairs complications may vary by surgical approach. Regardless of the approach unstented pyeloplasty is safe and effective in the pediatric population.”
“The vagus nerves supply the major cholinergic tone to airway smooth muscles physiologically and play critical roles in the genesis of airway hyperreactivity under some pathological conditions.

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