“This paper presents an algebraic reconstruction selleck chemical method for dipole-quadrupole sources using magnetoencephalography data. Compared to the conventional methods with the equivalent current dipoles source model, our method can more accurately reconstruct two close, oppositely directed sources. Numerical simulations show that two sources on both sides of the longitudinal fissure of cerebrum are stably estimated. The method is verified using a quadrupolar source phantom, which is composed of two isosceles-triangle-coils with parallel bases. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“Background/Aim: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) are most widely used tumor markers in detecting
hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, there have been some studies about them as prognostic markers in hepatitis C virus-associated HCC. However, prognostic values of AFP and PIVKA-II remain clarified in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated HCC. This study was aimed to evaluate the prognostic values of AFP and PIVKA-II in HBV-associated HCC.\n\nMethods: Patients (n = 126) were divided into 4 groups according to median levels of AFP and PIVKA-II (L; low/low, A; high/low, P; low/high, H; high/high) at diagnosis. Clinical characteristics and survival were compared among the groups, and Cox regression
analysis was performed to find independent factors RG-7388 inhibitor for survival.\n\nResults: Baseline host and viral factors were
not significantly different among the 4 groups. High PIVKA-II groups (P and II) had more aggressive tumor characteristics (larger size of tumors, higher number of tumors, frequent portal vein thrombosis, P < 0.05) and much shorter median survival time than low PIVKA-II groups (L and A) (P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, high PIVKA-II level was an independent predictor for survival (risk ration: 2.377, 95% confidence interval: 1.359-4.157 P = 0.002) together with Child-Pugh score, advanced TMN stages, and treatment modality. Even after excluding 33 patients who had Child-Pugh class C and advanced tumor stages (tumor-nodes-metastasis stage III-IV) at diagnosis, find more high PIVKA-II level was still an independent predictor for survival (risk ration: 4.258, 95% confidence interval: 2.418-8.445, P < 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Serum PIVKA-II level, not serum AFP. was a valuable independent prognostic factor in HBV-related HCC.”
“Background Nowadays, increasingly more preemptive analgesia studies focus on post-operative pain; however, the impact of preemptive analgesia on perioperative opioid requirement is not well defined. This study was carried out in order to evaluate whether preoperative intravenous flurbiprofen axetil can reduce perioperative opioid consump-tion and provide postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery.\n\nMethods Ninety patients undergoing elective thyroid gland surgery were randomly as-signed to three groups.