Finally, cell-attached firing was reversibly abolished by the GABA(B) activation in EGFP-positive, but not in EGFP-negative UBCs. Immunohistochemistry showed that EGFP-negative UBCs express GIRK2 at high density, while mGluR1 alpha UBCs are GIRK2 negative, suggesting that GIRK2 mediates the mGluR-sensitive
current in EGFP-negative UBCs. These data suggest that the two subclasses perform different functions in the cerebellar microcircuits.”
“Macrocerebellum is a rare finding characterized by an abnormally large cerebellum. Only few patients with a syndromal or isolated macrocerebellum have been reported so far. This article aims to categorize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, quantitate the macrocerebellum by volumetric analysis, characterize the neurological CBL0137 nmr and dysmorphic features and cognitive outcome, and report the results of genetic analyses in children with macrocerebellum. All MR images were qualitatively evaluated for infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities. Volumetric analysis was performed. Data about neurological find more and
dysmorphic features, outcome, and genetic analysis were collected from clinical histories and follow-up examinations. Five patients were included. Volumetric analysis in three patients confirmed large cerebellar size compared to age-matched controls. MR evaluation showed that thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres is responsible for the macrocerebellum. Additional
infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities were present in all patients. Muscular hypotonia, as well as impaired motor and cognitive development, was found in all patients, with ocular movement disorders in three of five patients. The five patients differed significantly in terms of dysmorphic features and involvement of extracerebral organs. Submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations were found in two patients. Macrocerebellum is caused by thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting that cerebellar granule cells may be involved in its development. Patients with macrocerebellum show highly heterogeneous neuroimaging, clinical, selleck inhibitor and genetic findings, suggesting that macrocerebellum is not a nosological entity, but instead represents the structural manifestation of a deeper, more basic biological disturbance common to heterogeneous disorders.”
“The innovative BoneWelding(A (R)) technology, where ultrasound energy bonds bioresorbable implants to bone, was tested for its feasibility in spine surgery and its local thermal effects. The three tested concepts consisted of implementation of a resorbable plating system, two converging polymer pins and suture anchors to the cervical vertebral bodies.