The patterns of change in biodiversity metrics are consistent among different types of disturbance. K disturbance has the most severe effects, followed by D disturbance, and B disturbance has nearly negligible effects. Consequences of composite DBK disturbances are more complex than any of the three types of disturbance, with unimodal relationships along a disturbance gradient arising when D, B and K are negatively correlated. Importantly, regardless of disturbance type, community isolation enhances the negative consequences and hinders the positive effects of disturbances.”
“The effects of A-site ion-size < r(A)> on the crystal
structures, transport and magnetic properties of the perovskite manganese oxide Pr0.3Ce0.2CaxSr0.5-xMnO Selleck Apoptosis Compound Library (0 <= x <= 0.25) have been investigated. In those compounds, when 0 <= x <= 0.125, the temperatures (T-max) of the resistivity maximums below Curie Temperature T-C are correlated with the Kondo-like scattering of Ce3+ and the onset of antiferromagnetic ordering of Ce3+ with respect to the Mn-sublattice moments. The decrease
of < r(A)> causes the anomalous increase of lattice parameters b, c and unit cell volume, the decrease of the differences of T-C and T-max, the weakening SB273005 supplier of the Kondo-like scattering and magnetic order of Ce3+, and the enhancement of saturation magnetic moment, which give the evidences of the valence enhancing of Ce ions from +3 toward +4 with < r(A)> decreasing. Although the Ca doping is expected
to drive the system toward the antiferromagnetic ground state, the increase HDAC inhibitor of valence of Ce enhances the content of Mn3+ in the system, which drives the system to the ferromagnetic ground state. The changes of ion-size < r(A)> and the valence of Ce are co-operating on the transport and magnetic properties of the half-doped manganites. (c) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3597822]“
“Parapiptadenia rigida, locally known as angico, is a tropical tree common in the semideciduous Brazilian forest. Its wood is naturally resistant to insect attack and is useful for construction. Extracts from the tree have medicinal properties. We characterized nine microsatellite loci for P. rigida. Thirty-five alleles were detected in a sample of 45 individuals from 3 different populations, with an average of 3.9 alleles per locus. The average polymorphic information content ranged from 0.099 to 0.640. Observed and expected heterozygosities varied from 0.111 to 0.489 and from 0.106 to 0.707, respectively. One locus exhibited significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and four pairs of loci showed significant linkage disequilibrium. All nine primers were tested for cross-amplification in species from the Fabaceae-Mimosoidea family, yielding a transferability success rate of 7 loci in Stryphnodendron adstringens to 0 transferred loci in Pithecellobium incuriale and Inga marginata.