Patients exhibited a significantly greater response slope (i e ,

Patients exhibited a significantly greater response slope (i.e., patients’ perception changed more rapidly) and greater shift point (i.e., patients still perceived mild expressions of anger as happy faces)

with increasing emotion signal compared with healthy controls when the facial expression morphed from happy to angry. Furthermore, patients with schizophrenia still perceived mild expressions of fear as angry faces(a greater shift point) and were less discriminative from angry to fearful emotion(a flatter response slope). They were sensitive to sadness (a smaller shift point) and the perception changed rapidly (a sharper response slope) as compared with healthy controls in the emotion continuum of happy to sad. In conclusion, patients with schizophrenia demonstrated impaired categorical perception of facial expressions, with generally ‘rapid’ but ‘late’ discrimination

towards social Selleckchem SB202190 threat-related stimuli such as angry facial expression. Compared with healthy controls, these patients have a sharper discrimination perception pattern in the emotion continua from positive valence to negative valence. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-mediated liver disease progression may reflect distinct molecular mechanisms for increased hepatocyte growth and hepatic stellate cell activation. In this

study, we have observed that primary human hepatocytes, when infected in vitro with FAD cell culture-grown HCV genotype 1a or 2a, display viral RNA and protein expression. Infected hepatocytes displayed a fibroblast-like shape and an extended life span. To understand the changes at the molecular level, we examined epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. Increased mRNA and protein expression levels of vimentin, snail, slug, and twist and a loss of the epithelial cell marker E-cadherin were observed. Snail and twist, when examined separately, were upregulated in chronically HCV-infected liver biopsy specimens, indicating an onset of an active EMT state in the infected liver. An increased expression level of fibroblast-specific protein 1 (FSP-1) in the infected hepatocytes was also evident, indicating a type 2 EMT state. Infected hepatocytes had significantly increased levels of phosphorylated beta-catenin (Ser(552)) as an EMT mediator, which translocated into the nucleus and activated Akt. The phosphorylation level of beta-catenin at Thr(41)/Ser(45) moieties was specifically higher in control than in HCV-infected hepatocytes, implicating an inactivation of beta-catenin. Together, these results suggested that primary human hepatocytes infected with cell culture-grown HCV display EMT via the activation of the Akt/beta-catenin signaling pathway.

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