The most effective interventions are probably

The most effective interventions are probably buy SHP099 structural changes to improve access to education and employment for young people and to reduce the risk of transport-related injury.”
“BACKGROUND AND IMPORTANCE: Purely intraorbital arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), which are rare vascular malformations that clinically mimic carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs), involve a fistula from the ophthalmic artery to 1 of the draining ophthalmic veins. We describe a case of an intraorbital AVF treated with transvenous endovascular coil embolization via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS) route

and review the literature on this rare entity.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: An 81-year-old woman sought treatment after check details 7 days of progressive left-sided visual acuity loss, chemosis, and lateral rectus palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated dilated vascularity in the left orbit raising suspicions for a CCF. Cerebral angiography showed a purely intraorbital AVF with a fistula between the left ophthalmic artery and superior ophthalmic vein (SOV). Transvenous selective catheterization of the fistula was performed by successfully

navigating the ipsilateral IPS to the cavernous sinus and SOV. The fistula was then embolized using detachable coils. The patient was discharged the next day. Three weeks after embolization, her ocular symptoms and findings had resolved.

CONCLUSION: Intraorbital AVFs are a rare type of AVF that can be treated by direct surgical ligation, transarterial embolization, or transvenous embolization. We successfully navigated the IPS, which is frequently stenotic or occluded secondary to chronically increased fistulous drainage, and utilized this route to embolize the fistula with detachable coils.”
“Background. The role of

the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the pathogenesis of affective disorders such as depression has been controversial. Mounting evidence comes from structural imaging, that the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influences the hippocampal volume with Amylase carriers of the 66Met allele (Val/Met and Met/Met group) having smaller hippocampi. Given that stress-induced atrophy of the hippocampus is associated with the pathogenesis of affective disorders, the functional BDNF Val66Met polymorphism could be an incremental risk factor.

Method. Eighty-seven healthy Caucasian participants underwent structural imaging and were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Data were analysed by means of voxel-based morphometry (VBM).

Results. Region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed an association between the 66Met allele and smaller parahippocampal volumes and a smaller right amygdala. In addition, the whole-brain analysis showed that the thalamus, fusiformus gyrus and several parts of the frontal gyrus were smaller in 66Met allele carriers.


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