SCs morphology is usually simpler than

SCs morphology is usually simpler than check details that one of the committed cells of the same lineage. It has often got a circular shape depending on its tissue lineage and a low ratio cytoplasm/nucleus dimension, i.e.

a sign of synthetic activity. Several specifics markers of general or lineage “”stemness”" have been described but some, such as alkaline phosphatase, are common to many cell types [1, 8–11]. From the physiological point of view, adult stem cells (ASCs) maintain the tissue homeostasis as they are already partially committed. ASCs usually differentiate in a restricted range of progenitors and terminal cells to replace local parenchyma (there is evidence that transdifferentiation is involved in injury repair in other districts [12],

damaged cells or sustaining cellular turn over [13]). SCs derived from early human embryos (Embryonic stem cells (ESCs)), instead, are pluripotent and can generate all committed cell types [14, 15]. Fetal stem cells (FSCs) derive from the placenta, membranes, amniotic fluid or fetal tissues. FSCs are higher in number, expansion potential and differentiation abilities if compared with SCs from adult tissues [16]. Naturally, the migration, differentiation and growth are mediated by the tissue, degree of injury and SCs involved. Damaged tissue releases factors that induce SCs homing. The tissue, intended as stromal cells, extracellular matrix, circulating growth and differentiating factors, determines a gene activation and a functional reaction on SCs, SC79 in vitro such as moving in a specific district, differentiating in a particular cell type Fossariinae or resting in specific niches. These factors can alter the gene expression pattern in SCs

when they reside in a new tissue [17]. Scientific research has been working to understand and to indentify the molecular processes and cellular cross-talking that involve SCs. Only with a deep knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanism involving SCs, we might be able to reproduce them in a laboratory and apply the results obtained in the treatment of degenerative pathologies, i.e. neurological disorder such as Parkinson’s disease (PD), Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis [18], musculoskeletal disorder [19], diabetes [20], eye disorder [21], autoimmune diseases [22], liver cirrhosis [23], lung disease [24] and cancer [25]. In spite of the initial enthusiasm for their potential therapeutic application, SCs are associated with several burdens that can be observed in clinical practice. Firstly, self-renewal and plasticity are properties which also characterize cancer cells and the hypothesis to lose control on transplanted SCs, preparing a fertile ground for tumor development, is a dangerous and unacceptable side effect [26, 27].

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