We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate ge

We undertook pilot sequencing of onion genomic DNA to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive DNAs. Complete sequences from two onion BACs were AT rich (64.8%) and revealed long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons, similar to other larger plant genomes. Random BACs were end sequenced and only 3 of 460 ends showed significant (e < -25) non-organellar hits to the protein databases. The BAC-end sequences were AT rich (63.4%), similar to the completely sequenced BACs. A total of 499,997 bp of onion GSK1904529A genomic DNA yielded an estimated mean density of one gene per 168 kb, among the

lowest reported to date. Methyl filtration was highly effective relative to random shotgun reads in reducing frequencies of anonymous sequences from 82 to 55% and increasing non-organellar protein hits from 4 to 42%. Our results revealed no evidence for gene-dense regions and indicated that sequencing of methyl-filtered genomic fragments should be an efficient approach to reveal genic sequences in the onion genome.”
“Deficits in social and communication behaviors are common features of a number of neurodevelopmental disorders. However, the molecular and cellular substrates of these higher order brain functions are not well understood. Here we report that specific alterations in social and communication behaviors in mice

occur as a result of loss of the EPAC2 gene, which encodes a protein kinase A-independent cAMP target. Epac2-deficient mice exhibited robust deficits in social Selleckchem BMS-777607 interactions and ultrasonic vocalizations, but displayed normal olfaction, working and reference memory, motor abilities, anxiety, and repetitive behaviors. Epac2-deficient mice displayed abnormal columnar organization in the A-1210477 datasheet anterior cingulate cortex, a region implicated in social behavior in humans, but not in somatosensory cortex. In vivo two-photon imaging revealed reduced dendritic

spine motility and density on cortical neurons in Epac2-deficient mice, indicating deficits at the synaptic level. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the molecular and cellular substrates of social and communication behavior.”
“Aims: This study aimed to identify the involvement of class 3 semaphorins (Sema3) and receptors, neuropilins (Np1 and Np2) and plexins (A1-A4) in breast cancer development and angiogenesis.\n\nMethods and results: We quantified and correlated Sema3A, Sema3B, Sema3F and their known receptors and coreceptors Plexin-A1, Plexin-A3, Np1 and Np2 in sections of normal human breast, benign and premalignant hyperplastic tissue, pre-invasive and invasive cancer, and compared these findings with our previously published data on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and microvessel density (MVD) in the same samples.

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