The combined effect of vitamins restored normal testicular functi

The combined effect of vitamins restored normal testicular function in Cd-exposed rats (Sen Gupta et al., 2004). The effect of dietary vitamin E intake on lipid peroxidation as measured by the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed. It appears that reduction in the increase in TBARS due to Cd-induced

toxicity may be an important factor in the action of vitamin E (Beytut et al., 2003). The protective role of melatonin, an effective antioxidant and free radical scavenger, against cadmium was also studied (Karbownik et al., 2001). Melatonin slightly reduced lipid peroxidation in the testes induced by cadmium. The most common oxidation numbers of arsenic are +5, +3, and −3, in which the element is able to form both inorganic and organic compounds in the environment and within the human body (Hei and Filipic, 2004). In combination ABT199 with other elements such as oxygen, sulphur RG7422 mw and chlorine the element is referred to as inorganic arsenic and as combined with hydrogen and carbon as organic arsenic. Since most arsenic compounds are colourless and/or do not smell, the presence of arsenic in food,

water or air, is a serious human health risk. Inorganic arsenic includes arsenite (As(III)) and arsenate (As(V)) and can be either methylated to form monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) or dimethylated as in dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) (Arnold et al., 2006 and Wang and Rossman, 1996). The metabolism of inorganic arsenic involves a two-electron reduction of pentavalent arsenic, mediated by GSH, followed by oxidative methylation to form pentavalent organic arsenic. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is the most prevalent inorganic arsenical found in air, while a variety of inorganic arsenates (AsO43−) or arsenites (AsO2−) occur in water, soil, or food (Ding et al., 2005). Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is used in electronics industry and has also negative impact on human health. Although gallium arsenide is poorly soluble, it undergoes slow dissolution and oxidation to form gallium trioxide and arsenite (Webb et al., 1986). The toxic effects of GaAs consist of liberated Oxymatrine arsenic enhanced

by the other effects of the gallium. Arsenic is toxic to the majority of organ systems; inorganic arsenic being more toxic than methylated organic arsenic (Mandal and Suzuki, 2002). The trivalent forms are the most toxic and react with thiol groups of proteins. The pentavalent forms possess less toxicity, however uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Trivalent arsenic inhibits various cellular enzymes, including for example pyruvate dehydrogenase, resulting in a reduced conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) (Wang and Rossman, 1996). Enzyme inhibition occurs through binding to sulphydryl groups. Arsenic also inhibits the uptake of glucose into cells, gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and further production of acetyl CoA.

For each assay, the XTT solution was thawed on ice and mixed with

For each assay, the XTT solution was thawed on ice and mixed with the menadione solution at 20:1 (v/v). Tokens with biofilm were gently placed PD0325901 molecular weight inside another pre-sterilised flat bottomed 24-well tissue culture plate and 2 mL of the XTT solution (PBS + 200 mM glucose-XTT-menadione) were added to each well.

The plates were covered with aluminium foil and incubated in the dark under agitation at 37 °C for 3 h.22 Thereafter, the solution was centrifuged and 500 μL were transferred to spectrophotometer cuvettes. The bioactivity assay was performed using a spectrophotometer (Beckman Coulter, Indianapolis, IN, USA) and the readings were recorded at 490 nm. The bioactivity assays were performed in triplicate in three independent experiments on different days (n = 9). The tokens with biofilms were gently placed inside pre-sterilised flat bottomed 24-well tissue culture plates and stained using a Live/Dead BacLight viability kit (Invitrogen-Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR, USA). A

kit consisting of SYTO-9 and propidium iodide (PI) was used. STYO-9 is a green fluorescent nucleic acid stain, generally labelling both live and dead microorganisms. PI, in contrast, is a red-fluorescent nucleic acid stain and penetrates only the cells with damaged selleck compound membranes, thus only the dead cells are visualised. Biofilms were incubated with SYTO-9 and PI at 30 °C for 20 min in the dark before CLSM analyses. The images of stained biofilms were captured using a CLSM system (Leica Microsystems CMS, Mannheim, Germany). A series of images were obtained for each position at 1 μm intervals in the z-axis to obtain a three dimensional view of the biofilms (from substratum to the top of the biofilms). Five representative randomly selected positions from each corner and the middle of the tokens were examined for each token, in two independent experiments on different days (n = 10). The same protocol and configurations were used for CLSM analysis (×63 objective lens without zoom) in order to obtain all images from control or experimental groups. COMSTAT analysis is a software program for quantification

of three-dimensional biofilm structures. It analyses stacks of images acquired with CLSM. Z-series images of biofilms after 48 h were collected by CLSM. The z-slices of the images were exported to COMSTAT software and analysed. The parameters analysed included bio-volume, find more average thickness and black spaces of the biofilm. The bio-volume (μm3/μm2) is defined as the number of stained cell pixels in all images [(pixel size)x × (pixel size)y × (pixel size)z] divided by the substratum area of the image stack. 23 The tokens were placed inside a polypropylene tube containing 3 mL of sterilised PBS. Adherent micro-organisms were removed from the tokens by sonication at 7 W for 30 s.24 Once disaggregated, the cells were centrifuged (3000 rpm). The pellets were fixed by immersion in Karnovsky solution prepared in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.

3 Overall, our data suggest that gene expression profiles can be

3. Overall, our data suggest that gene expression profiles can be effectively used to identify putative mode(s) of action and hazards of NP exposure, in the absence of phenotypic

data. In addition to identification of hazard, it has been suggested that gene expression profiles may be useful for quantitative assessment (e.g., establishment of reference doses) of responses related to both cancer and non-cancer endpoints (Thomas et al., 2007). Benchmark doses are generally considered more informative than the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) in deriving reference doses as they are based on the entire dose–response relationship (Crump et al., 1995). Because alterations

in gene expression can be initiated in the absence of biological effects (e.g., adaptive or stress response pathways effective in mitigating toxic effects), it is expected that reference doses for genomics Cobimetinib INCB024360 nmr endpoints may be too sensitive for use in HHRA. However, previous analyses of 5 chemicals (i.e., 1,4-dichlorobenzene, propylene glycol mono-t-butyl ether, 1,2,3-trichloropropane, methylene chloride and naphthalene) showed that median BMD and BMDLs for the most sensitive pathways and GO categories were highly correlated with BMD and BMDLs of cancer and non-cancer endpoints (Thomas et al., 2011 and Thomas et al., 2012). In the current study, rather than choosing the most sensitive (i.e., lowest) BMDs, we focussed on the analysis of pathways that were specific to biological outcomes observed in the mice (i.e., phenotypically anchored),

and calculated BMDs for these relevant genes and pathways. The pathway-based BMDs and BMDLs calculated here for relevant pathways were actually less sensitive (i.e., higher BMDs) than those of the observed apical Farnesyltransferase endpoints. However, the mean of the minimum BMDs and BMDLs across all the pathways that we assigned as relevant to the apical endpoints (i.e., corresponding to the most sensitive genes within the relevant pathways) were similar to those of relevant apical endpoints. Median BMDs and BMDLs for the most sensitive pathways also correlate more closely with apical endpoints even though the pathways were not necessarily relevant to these endpoints. This finding supports previous examples demonstrating a 1:1 correlation between BMDs for gene expression and apical endpoints (Thomas et al., 2011 and Thomas et al., 2012). These data indicate the potential utility of using gene expression profiles in determining acceptable exposure limits for NPs. In order to determine the specific utility of pathway derived BMDs in HHRA, it will be necessary to establish a comprehensive catalogue of pathways that are actually perturbed in the event of specific adverse effects.

In addition, as the deeper layers have an earlier impact on the t

In addition, as the deeper layers have an earlier impact on the transport of nutrients during the upwelling along the southern coast, the total amounts of nutrients transported to the upper 10-m layer were larger during the upwelling along the southern coast. During the upwelling along the northern coast, water masses from depths of > 50 m reached the upper 10-m layer at least 1.5 days later and

the total amount of nutrients transported to the surface layer were therefore lower compared than that off the southern coast. The aim of this paper was to describe nutrient transport from different depths to the surface layer during an upwelling event in the Gulf of Finland. Modelling results showed that during upwelling events off either the northern or the VEGFR inhibitor southern coast of the Gulf, the highest phosphorus transport to the upper 10-m layer was from depths buy RAD001 shallower than 35 m. The largest amounts of nitrogen were transported to the surface layer from depths of 40–50 m off the northern and 40–60 m off the southern coast. The volume of water transported to the upper 10-m layer from the deeper layers is greater during the upwelling along the southern coast – there was a clear decrease in the water volume reaching the surface layer from depths greater than 50 m during the upwelling along the northern coast. The impact of the upwelling wind impulse

was higher on the southern coast; the transport of water from deeper layers started earlier than on the northern coast. Owing to the earlier transport from the bottom layers during the upwelling along the southern coast, the total amount of nutrients transported to the upper 10-m layer at the culmination of the event are larger during the upwelling along the southern coast. Although the reduction in wind stress lowered the amounts of nutrients transported to the upper 10-m layer during the Histamine H2 receptor upwelling event on both coasts, the main transport of phosphorus remained at the depths of 15– 25 m. Nitrogen transport from the deeper layers was vanishingly small for the upwelling along the northern coast, whereas for the southern coast, the largest transport remained in the depth range of 40–55 m. The Finnish Meteorological Institute

kindly provided wind data. Special thanks go to Oleg Andrejev for supplying the meteorological data. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their constructive recommendations. “
“The numerous threats and natural disasters elicited by changes in the environment have persuaded experts to radically intensify ecological investigations and forecasts at a regional and global scale. A key part in these changes is played by marine ecosystems, especially the organic matter production processes occurring in them. Marine production is the most important mechanism of carbon exchange between the sea and the atmosphere and therefore requires to be monitored continuously with both traditional methods (from on board ship) and modern remote sensing techniques.

, 2010) Monitoring is especially

, 2010). Monitoring is especially Selleckchem CX-4945 important in the TNMPA, where the clumped distribution of belugas makes

them particularly vulnerable to future disturbances associated with industrial activities and development (AANDC, 2012). When selecting indicators for monitoring, it is best to select indicators with existing baseline data, to allow for comparison to that baseline to detect change (Rice and Rochet, 2005). In the case of the TNMPA, beluga distribution and abundance, determined using replicated aerial surveys and the same transects, survey platform, timing and analytical methods as the surveys presented here, would be an indicator of choice. Such surveys in the future would provide opportunities to compare, by subarea and July time period, (1) sighting rates (e.g., whales per km flown), (2) patterns of clustering (e.g., standard distances), and the geographic location of ‘hot spots’ that are used by belugas (e.g., contemporary locations of ‘hot spots’ vs those listed in Table 3). This would also complement concurrent, long-term and on-going harvest monitoring efforts in the TNMPA, which have involved sampling harvested belugas since 1980 and revealed an emerging trend of declining growth rates since 2000 (Harwood et al., 2014). Our identification of ‘hot spots’ using the PVC approach provides at least three new and unique opportunity to conduct research on beluga habitat use in the TNMPA. First, it

would be possible to PAK5 further explore the propensity of belugas to aggregate in certain geographic locations of the TNMPA, by obtaining and standardizing data collected by hunters during hunting. The location of areas revealed in this manner could be compared to results from aerial surveys, past and contemporary, to see if patterns are similar or have changed. Changing patterns of beluga habitat use in the TNMPA could be an indication of changes in the quality or characteristics of TNMPA habitat. This could be achieved using shore- or boat-based surveys, and would have the added benefit of engaging beluga hunters as

participants in the research. Hunters would use hand-held GPS units to record spatial-temporal patterns of beluga distribution, and this would reveal changes over the course of the July hunting season, and between years. This would fine-tune our understanding of where and when belugas aggregate in certain areas of the TNMPA. Another means to further study beluga use of ‘hot spots’ in the TNMPA, and compare to past and contemporary locations of the specific areas that the belugas prefer, is through the conduct of acoustic monitoring of the whales and background noise levels in their habitat. This would involve installation of passive acoustic recorders and hydrophones at ‘hot spot’ and ‘cold spot’ areas, to document vocalizations or lack thereof, as a measure of whale occurrence and relative abundance over time (Simard et al., 2010 and Lammers et al., 2013). Preliminary work of this type was initiated in 2011 and 2012 (Simard et al.

All forms of SAS may be surface-modified to produce silica that i

All forms of SAS may be surface-modified to produce silica that is more hydrophobic. The difference between the amorphous and crystalline silica forms arises from the connectivity of the tetrahedral units. Amorphous silica consists of a non-repeating network of tetrahedra, where all the oxygen corners connect two neighbouring tetrahedra. Although there is no long range periodicity in the network there remains significant ordering at length scales well beyond the SiO bond length. The amorphous structure is very “open”, i.e., channels exist through which small positive ions such as Na+ and K+ can readily migrate. Pyrogenic amorphous silica is produced in closed reactors

by the hydrolysis of (alkyl)chlorosilanes (e.g. SiCl4, HSiCl3. CH3SiCl3) in an oxygen/hydrogen flame at temperatures between 1200 and 1600 °C. Nucleation, condensation and coagulation of SiO2 Cyclopamine molecules generate proto-particles of SiO2 which combine to primary particles. Under the conditions of the reaction

zone, primary particles form SiO2 aggregates; aggregates then form agglomerates of SiO2. It is important to note that primary Selleck MK-2206 particles do not exist outside the reaction zone. The relatively high temperature yields a product that has low water content ( Fig. 2). Precipitated silica and silica gel consist of randomly linked spherical polymerized primary particles. OSBPL9 The properties are a result of the size and state of aggregation of the primary particles and their

surface chemistry. Precipitated silica and silica gels can be produced from various raw materials. The most relevant process in industry is from sodium silicate solutions by acidification with sulphuric acid to produce a gelatinous precipitate. The precipitate is filtered, washed, dehydrated and milled to produce precipitated silica with typically broad meso/macroporous pore structures reflected in the pore size distribution, or silica gels with generally more narrow microporous or mesoporous structure with average pore diameters between 2 and 50 nm. By controlling the washing, ageing, and drying conditions, the important physical parameters such as porosity, pore size, and surface area can be adjusted to produce a range of different silica gel types with well-defined particle size distributions. Amorphous mesoporous silica with uniformed pores in the size range between 1.5 and 50 nm can be synthesised by reacting tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) with a template of surfactant molecules, typically amphiphilic polymers, under either alkaline or acidic conditions. The surfactants are later evacuated from the mesopores by a calcination step or by washing with a solvent. Form and diameter of the mesopores are determined by the type of surfactants used in the synthesis (Mou and Lin, 2000 and Napierska et al., 2010).

Results indicated that emergency responders were clearly exposed

Results indicated that emergency responders were clearly exposed to ACN from the accident

as 26% of the non-smokers had CEV concentrations above the reference value of 10 pmol/g globin. However, the extent Thiazovivin mw of the overexposure in the emergency responders remained moderate. First, while a substantial proportion of the emergency responders exceeded CEV values above what is observed in a background population, the median values observed in both smokers and non-smokers in our population are comparable to what is described in the literature for a non-exposed population (Kraus et al., 2012). Second, even the higher CEV concentrations in the non-smokers (95th percentile of 73 pmol/g globin and maximum of 452 pmol/g globin) remained within the ranges as described for smokers in the literature. Third, the higher CEV concentrations in smokers (95th percentile of 342 pmol/g globin and maximum of 811 pmol/g globin) exceeded only slightly what learn more has been reported in a non-exposed population in Germany (95th percentile of 332 pmol/g globin and maximum of 607 pmol/g globin) (Kraus et al., 2012). The difference of CEV concentrations between smokers and non-smokers is also similar in the study population to what is reported in non-exposed populations, smokers having CEV concentrations largely above the concentrations observed in non-smokers. The CEV contribution due to tobacco

smoking is therefore preponderant in the CEV concentrations of smokers. CART methodology was used to assess

factors predictive of the CEV concentration in the non-smokers. CART offers the advantage of using variables multiple times in different branches of the classification and regression trees, allowing to uncover complex interdependencies between variables. CART can easily incorporate a large number of both numerical and categorical predictor variables, although care should be given to potential overly complex trees as a result of overfitting. Three discriminating factors were identified, i.e., (1) the distance to the accident, (2) the duration of exposure, and (3) the occupational function. The increased CEV concentrations in function of proximity to the accident and exposure duration are in accordance with a direct exposure from the accident and the cumulative character of the CEV biomarker that O-methylated flavonoid was used, respectively. The interpretation of ‘function’ as predictive determinant is more complicated. First, the ‘function’ turned out to be the most important determinant in the emergency responders without presence in the <50 m zone, with the fire-fighters, the civil protection workers and the group ‘others’ having higher CEV levels than the police and the army. Second, among this group of fire-fighters, civil protection workers and ‘others’, higher CEV concentrations were observed in those who had been present on the field within the 50–250 m zone or further away.

We also acknowledge undergraduate researchers supported by Arkans

We also acknowledge undergraduate researchers supported by Arkansas State University’s National Science Foundation grant (#REU-0552608). “
“The “Great Eastern Japan Earthquake (Higashi Nihon Daishinsai)” caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake learn more off the coast of Northeastern Japan on Friday, 11 March 2011, triggered an extremely destructive tsunami with waves up to 37.9 meters high. This is the most powerful known earthquake to have hit Japan and one of the five most powerful in the world. At least three nuclear reactors at Fukushima Nuclear Plant in the tsunami area suffered explosions, which were described as ‘extremely

serious’ by the head of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the measure of severity of the crisis being raised on 12th April 2011 to the highest international level of 7. Even though the radioactive leaks were described as much lower than those in Chernobyl nuclear

disaster in 1986, the leaks had not stopped completely at the plant and scientists feel that the total leakage could eventually exceed those at Chernobyl. Especially, the increasing Pirfenidone chemical structure amounts of 137Cs and 131I are matters of concern. These and other radioactive materials are now polluting the global environment through air and water and it has been cautioned by many that these may accumulate in the biotic compartments such as seaweeds, fish, etc. and may ultimately reach marine mammals and human. This phenomenon needs the maximum attention of scientists working on the aftereffects of the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake. Interestingly, in a survey conducted by our laboratory (Yoshitome et al., 2003), we found that the levels of anthropogenic radionuclide 137Cs was the lowest in the species of marine mammals obtained from off Otsuchi (0.17 ± 0.05 Bq/kg wet wt) and off Sanriku coast (0.21 ± 0.09 Bq/kg wet wt), Japan when compared with the specimens caught from other parts of the world such as Lake Baikal (14 ± 2 Bq/kg wet wt), Black

Sea (9.0 ± 2.1 Bq/kg wet wt), Kara Sea (2.0 ± 0.5 Bq/kg wet wt), Caspian Silibinin Sea (2.6 ± 0.8 Bq/kg wet wt), Northern Canada (3.4 Bq/kg wet wt), North Sea (1.3 Bq/kg wet wt), etc. We also found a strong positive correlation between the levels of this radionuclide in the muscle of marine mammals and ambient water. All the samples for this study were gathered in the 1990s and those in Japan were from the northwestern Pacific where the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake of 2011 occurred. We would like to reiterate here that work on 137Cs on the marine mammal specimens from this location now can give an insight into the most discussed radioactive problem in the area. The above cited paper can provide the baseline data for comparison for studying the possibility of build-up of 137Cs in the marine mammals near northeastern Japan. Schnoor (2011) has explained various lessons to be learnt on the nuclear calamity at the Fukushima power plant following the 9.0 earthquake. He has given a list of such lessons to be learnt.

These results, therefore, should not be used to determine stroke

These results, therefore, should not be used to determine stroke risk, and repeated examinations Inhibitor Library order should be performed when the patient is stable. It is essential to use educational

intervention to target parents and caregivers as well as children about the importance of conducting systematic TCD examinations. The use of criteria other than ICA/MCA was analyzed in some studies; however, there is no consensus that allows us to recommend chronic transfusion. Nevertheless, we suggest attentiveness to changes in other arteries and a thorough understanding of “individual risk” thereby reducing the need for numerous exam repetitions. Children with abnormal ICA/MCA velocities and elevated anterior cerebral artery (ACA) velocities presented a risk of stroke more than twice that of those with abnormal ICA/MCA but normal ACA velocity [19]. There are similar findings with the basilar artery, vertebral, PCA and OA when compared with the ICA/MCA,

high throughput screening however, the recommendations must be more uniform. Although in the majority of cases, velocities could go back to a normal range (MCA TAMMX < 170 cm/s) after a period of 30 months or longer, discontinuation can result in a high rate of reversion to abnormal blood-flow velocities on the TCD or even in stroke. The STOP II study concluded that we must maintain chronic transfusion indefinitely [17] and [18]. Other treatment regimens are now being tested [20]. TCD screening rates in children with SCD have increased after the publication of the STOP trial, and medical providers may be targeting those children at the highest stroke risk. Prospective follow-up of a larger sample will be required to assess the impact of this screening on stroke rates. TCD screening

itself only stratifies stroke risk, but does not prevent stroke; stroke prevention depends on the implementation of Casein kinase 1 chronic transfusion therapy. However, access to vascular laboratories appears to be a barrier to the implementation of this highly effective stroke prevention strategy, even among children with comprehensive health insurance. The main problems are difficulties in performing the examination, differences in imaging and nonimaging techniques, and interpretation of guidelines. The identification of sickle cell vasculopathy by MRI, MRA, and MR diffusion imaging has increased our understanding of sickle cell lesions. Silent infarction incidence could be as high as 17% and carries a risk of future infarctions as well [21]. The etiology of silent infarctions, however, remains unresolved, and the implications for preventive therapy continue to be studied. At present, we should attempt to increase the availability of TCD screening by physician training and TCD machine access in the locations of disease prevalence.

A trigonometric polynomial is used to assign values at any model

A trigonometric polynomial is used to assign values at any model time and for all of the grid points. Initial phytoplankton values Sirolimus for January and December are very limited, so a constant value of 0.1 mgC m−3 is defined; but the model is not sensitive to the initial conditions of phytoplankton concentration (in January). Also, the data for the detritus content at the bottom are not available, so the instantaneous sinking of detritus is a more arbitrary model assumption. The initial amount of detritus at the bottom is prescribed as 200 mgC m−2 for the whole Baltic Sea.

The initial values for total inorganic nitrogen are taken from SCOBI 3D-model for January. The initial vertical distributions of nutrient, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus pool are known: Phyt(x, y, z, 0)=Phyt0(x, y, z)0≤z≤H,Nutr(x, y, z, 0)=Nutr0(x, y, z)0≤z≤H,Detr(x, y, z, 0)=Detr0(x, y, H)z=H.The

vertical gradients of the phytoplankton and nutrient concentration fluxes are zero at the sea surface (z = 0): FPhyt(x, y, 0, t)≡Kz∂Phyt(x, y, z, t)∂z|z=0−wzPhyt(x, y, 0, t)=0,FNutr(x, y, 0, t)≡Kz∂Nutr(z, t)∂z|z=0=0. The bottom flux condition for phytoplankton and nutrient is given by FPhyt(x, y, H, t)≡−wzPhyt(x, y, H, t),FNutr(x, y, H, t)≡Kz∂Nutr(x, y,z, t)∂z|z=H=gNREMD.This flux Fphyt(H) enters the benthic detritus equation as a source term. The boundary condition provides Ibrutinib manufacturer the mechanism by which the water column is replenished by nutrients derived from benthic remineralization. In order to assess the accuracy of the CEMBSv1 model for determining the parameters of the Baltic ecosystem, we compared the temperatures and chlorophyll a concentrations obtained from the model with those measured in situ and in water samples for five years Lepirudin (2000–2004). For these comparisons

the relevant errors of these simulations were calculated in accordance with the principles of arithmetic and logarithmic statistics: 1. Arithmetic statistics: 2. Logarithmic statistics: a) Relative mean error:〈ε〉〈ε〉 [%] (systematic) 〈ε〉=1N∑iεiwhere εi=xi, mod−xi, exp/xi, expεi=xi, mod−xi, exp/xi, exp e) Mean logarithmic error: g〈ε〉〈ε〉g [%] (systematic) g〈ε〉=10〈L〉−1〈ε〉g=10〈L〉−1where L=log(xi, mod/xi, exp)L=log(xi, mod/xi, exp) b) Standard deviation of ε: σε [%] σε=1N(∑i(εi−〈ε〉)2) f) Standard error factor: χ χ=10σLχ=10σLwhere σL is standard deviation of L c) Absolute mean error: 〈ε′〉〈ε′〉 [%] 〈ε′〉=1N∑iεi′where εi′=xi, mod−xi, exp g) Statistical logarithmic errors: σ–, σ+ [%] σ−=1/χ−1σ+=χ−1 d) Standard deviation of ε′: σε′ [%] σε′=1N(∑i(εi′−〈ε′〉)2) Full-size table Table options View in workspace Download as CSVwhere xi, mod – calculated values, xi, exp – measured values. The following aspects were taken into account in the assessment of the modelled ecosystem parameters: 1.