Likewise, in the study by Dorsay and Orange [12] who reviewed ret

Likewise, in the study by Dorsay and Orange [12] who reviewed retrospectively a group of 24 children with THI, as much as twenty patients carried at least one atopic diagnosis despite elevated IgE levels in 7 patients. These findings are supported by other authors’ opinions that patients with hypogammaglobulinemia and concomitant allergic diseases may show poor correlation between clinical symptoms and results of serum total and allergen-specific IgE tests [13], [14] and [15]. Therefore, serum IgE levels cannot be considered as suitable diagnostic criteria for allergic disease in patients with defective antibody

synthesis. Interestingly, an early onset of clinical manifestations of food allergy that in 16 of 17 children falls on the first selleck products 6 months and in 12 children even on the first 3 months of life supports the initial Talazoparib cell line hypothesis that hypogammaglobulinemia, among others genetic and environmental factors, may substantially contribute to the development of food allergy in children. The first symptoms of allergic disease are thus present in infants in parallel to the breakdown of protective maternal transplacentally obtained IgG antibodies and resulting hypogammaglobulinemia. In these considerations on reciprocal pathomechanisms of low serum immunoglobulin levels and breakdown of tolerance to alimentary antigens one should also take into account the protein loss through the inflamed gastrointestinal mucosa and the enteropathy Adenosine triphosphate secondary to food allergy

as the primary cause of hypogammaglobulinemia [16], [17] and [18]. As the immune competence later in life is affected by the ability to

mount an appropriate immune response upon infection as well as to develop tolerogenic immune mechanisms, the immunomodulatory role of breastfeeding in shaping the immune maturation must be stressed [19] and [20]. This study has several limitations, namely a relatively small study group and its retrospective character that does not enable to define either prognosis in terms of hypogammaglobulinemia or the outcome of food allergy. The natural history of early allergy to milk, egg, wheat and soy is generally associated with development of spontaneous clinical tolerance in food-allergic individuals [10], but there is a lack of one universal parameter that might enable to predict the spontaneous immunocorrection and resolution or progression of allergy. These issues might be the subject of further case-controlled prospective studies. Antibody production defects in infants and young children may be associated with health problems beyond just hypogammaglobulinemia, but pose the increased risk of allergy to alimentary antigens. Symptomatology of food allergy correlates better with serum IgG and IgA deficiency than laboratory markers of atopy. Dysregulation of the immune response contributing to defective antigen elimination in predisposed immunodeficient individuals might be considered as a critical risk factor accompanying development of allergy.

The pairing of heavy and light chain V-genes from each family occ

The pairing of heavy and light chain V-genes from each family occurs in proportion to their abundance in the library (data not shown), indicating random pairing as expected with the library construction SB431542 in vivo method that was employed.

Previous data suggests random pairing also occurs in the human repertoire (de Wildt et al., 1999). Each library was assessed by selection against seven targets: gastrin (a 14 amino acid peptide), β-galactosidase (a bacterial protein, β-gal), human proteins insulin receptor in complex with insulin (InsR + Ins), TIE1, TIE2, TIE2 in complex with angiopoeitin 1 (ANG1), and TIE2 in complex with angiopoeitin 2 (ANG2). Three rounds of panning were performed for each target using previously described panning methods (Hoet et al., 2005 and Bhaskar et al., 2012). For each target, five to ten 96-well Saracatinib plates of clones were screened either by ELISA (gastrin, β-gal, TIE1, TIE2, and TIE2 complexes) or flow cytometry (InsR + Ins (Bhaskar et al., 2012), TIE2, and TIE2 complexes) for binding to the target. The clones that bound to their target were sequenced to identify unique clones. The unique clones were then analyzed for VH and VL family representation (Fig. 4), for CDR3 length of the VH and VL, and to assess the germline representation in FR1–FR3 of the selected clones (Table 2). Once unique clones were identified for each

target, further Nintedanib (BIBF 1120) characterization of those clones was performed. For both libraries, the unique clones that bound to β-gal and TIE1 were prepared

as soluble antibody fragments in periplasmic extracts (PPE) and the KD (equilibrium dissociation constant) was determined using Biacore. For both targets, multiple antibody fragments with high affinities (single-digit nM to triple-digit pM) were identified. Table 2 lists the best KD identified for each target per library (Fig. S3). When screening the panning campaigns of TIE2 in complex with either of its ligands (ANG1 or ANG2), antibody fragments in PPE were screened by flow cytometry for binding to TIE2 or TIE2–ligand complex, and screened by ELISA for binding to ANG1 or ANG2. Binders in three categories emerged: single-protein binders (TIE2, ANG1 or ANG2), TIE2/ANG1-complex binders, or TIE2/ANG2-complex binders (Table 3). A subset of 10 Fab clones and 8 scFv clones that bound TIE2 was reformatted as IgG and the KD for each clone was determined with Biacore (Table 2 and Fig. S3). For clones from XscFv2, 6 out of 8 clones have KDs > 8 nM. For clones from XFab1, 9 out of 10 have KDs > 11 nM with two of these clones having KDs in the pM range (Fab09 = 800 pM and Fab10 = 500 pM). The sequences of the 591 unique selected clones for both libraries were compared to each other and aligned to the closest germline sequence.

To overcome these problems, researchers at the Centre for the Stu

To overcome these problems, researchers at the Centre for the Study of Venoms and Venomous Animals of UNESP – CEVAP have developed a new sealant consisting of fibrinogen extracted from large animals and an enzyme

derived from snake venom, both of which have been Alectinib used experimentally since 1989 (Barros et al., 2009). The fibrin sealant produced by CEVAP does not contain human blood, while its low production cost will permit its routine use in hospitals and facilitate its accessibility for poorer segments of the population. To date, various experiments on fibrin sealants have been performed on both animals and humans (Barros et al., 2009). In 2009, researchers treated 25 patients suffering from chronic ulcers and concluded that the sealant is suitable for treating leg ulcers and is more economical than currently available options on the market. Fibrin sealants also present the following advantages: easy application, amenable bed preparation and reduced pain. Furthermore, it has

been suggested that weekly application, for at least eight weeks, improves the healing process and raises cure indices (Gatti et al., 2011). However, it is known that the discovery and development of new medicaments are based on the discovery of therapeutic targets, the design and selection of a molecule directed toward the intended target, optimisation of the leading molecule, development of the candidate and, finally, the discovery of the medicament (Calixto and Siqueira Jr., 2008). Venkatesh and Lipper (2000) indicate that the main factors responsible for failures in the Selleckchem Inhibitor Library development of new medicaments are low bioavailability (39%), a lack of efficacy (29%), the detection of toxic effects (21%) and market-related reasons (6%). In this context, toxins appear to be excellent candidates with worldwide bioavailability, but bridging the gap between basic and applied research is not a simple task. This apparent gap between discovery PRKD3 and transformation into commercial

products has been attributed to animal models that are poorly representative and to a lack of scientific rigour, a profile that results in insufficient beneficial effects in subsequent clinical trials (Morgan et al., 2011). A “translational” investigation aims to bridge these gaps, and, as described by Cooksey (2006), provides a “process for taking discoveries from basic or clinical research and using them to produce innovations in healthcare environments.” Nevertheless, the realisation of a more efficacious translational process is currently achieved by “re-engineering” research companies to overcome the barriers between basic and applied research, principally due to the cost and time of execution. To bridge this gap in Brazil, the Ministry of Health has supported “From Bench to Bedside” projects.

The most characteristic of these disturbances is erythromelalgia,

The most characteristic of these disturbances is erythromelalgia, consisting of congestion, redness and burning pain involving the extremities. On the basis of several prospective and retrospective cohort studies in PV and ET, age older than 60 years and previous thrombosis have been identified as major predictors of vascular complications.[19] and [20] Moreover, there is evidence that leukocytosis and JAK2 mutation

may be included Selleck Afatinib in the prognostic stratification provided new studies will confirm their predictive role. Experts of the European LeukemiaNet group (ELN) agree that a clear association between platelet counts and major vascular events is lacking and that extreme thrombocytosis (i.e., > 1500 × 109/L) can be associated with acquired von Willebrand disease and bleeding tendency.[12] and [21] The relation between hematocrit levels up to 50% and thrombosis is uncertain.22 check details By incorporating this body of knowledge in a clinically oriented scheme (Table 1), patients with either PV or ET can be stratified in a “high-risk” or “low-risk” category according to their age and previous history of thrombosis; an “intermediate-risk” category,

that would include younger patients with coexisting generic cardiovascular risk factors in the absence of previous thrombosis, is also defined, but formal proof of its relevance to stratify patients is still lacking. It should be underlined that these concepts are based on relative risk estimates such as odds ratio, risk ratio, or hazard ratio so that no Buspirone HCl direct meaning or relevance to prognostication of thrombosis in individual patient can be drawn by these tools. In fact, given the variability among

ET and PV patients in the clinical and hematologic presentation and treatment of the disease, a single predictor or variable even though generated by a multivariable approach rarely gives an adequate estimate of thrombotic prediction in individual patient or groups. In contrast, a more reliable and consistent prediction of thrombotic risk may be provided by combining multiple variables in prognostic models whose performance needs to be confirmed in other cohorts of patients. In primary myelofibrosis (PMF), such studies are available,23 but we need this information in PV and ET as well. Thrombosis is a multifactorial process and its pathogenesis results from an interplay of various factors other than the myeloproliferative disease. The identification and appropriate management of cardiovascular risk factors and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle in MPN, as in the general population, should be considered a cornerstone of vascular prevention. Particular attention has to be given to smoking habit which has an important effect on vascular risk and which was found to be surprisingly common among PV patients recruited in the ECLAP observational study.


Each selleck screening library freeze-dried sample was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate, ground with mortar, and pestled to obtain a dry powder. The powdered mass was then extracted with dichloromethane using an ASE 200 extractor (Dionex, Salt Lake City, UT, USA). The extracted volume was reduced to ∼1.5 ml using a rotary evaporator and then fractionated through an alumina oxide column to remove polar interferences using 35 ml of petroleum ether. The extract was concentrated to ∼5 ml by rotary evaporation and transferred to a pre-combusted, glass test tube. The extract volume was further reduced to ∼1 ml using a purified nitrogen stream and sealed in an amber vial

for GC-MS analysis. The sample analysis was performed by a Varian 3800GC/Saturn 4000 ion trap mass spectrometer (Varian, Walnut Creek, CA, USA) operated in the ion-monitoring mode. Prior to the analysis, a mixture of perdeuterated PAHs, including phenanthrene-d10, benzo(a)anthracene-d10, benzo(a)pyrene-d12,

and benzo(g,h,i)perylene-d12, was added immediately to each extract as an internal standard. Each PAH was identified by its retention time relative to the internal standards and quantified by comparing the integrated area of the molecular ion chromatogram to that of the internal standard ( Ko and Baker, 1995 and Ko and Baker, 2004). The detailed description about the PAH’s analysis can be found in Hung et al (2010). The concentrations of PAHs in zooplankton at 27 stations (excluding station 30 due to sample spilling) are expressed in two different units: ng g−1 (e.g., PAHs normalized by dry weight of zooplankton) and ng m−3 (e.g., PAH concentrations (ng g−1) normalized by zooplankton biomass in seawater (g m−3)). There

are at least four main water masses (Fig. 1, CDW: Changjiang Diluted Water, TCWW: Taiwan Current Warm Water, KW: the Kuroshio Water, YS: Yellow Sea Water) in the ECS in April based on temperature and salinity distributions (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 and Table 1). CDW is a mixture of Changjiang River runoff and shelf water with low salinity and high nutrient concentrations (Gong et al., 2003 and Hung et al., 2013). YSW is mainly carried into the northern part of the ECS through the Chinese Coastal Current from the Yellow Sea (Ichikawa and Beardsley, 2002), showing moderate salinity, new low temperature and low nutrient concentrations (Gong et al., 2003 and Chou et al., 2009). TCWW enters the ECS from the Taiwan Strait with high temperature and high salinity (Gong et al, 2003), but its salinity is lower than that of the KW. The KW flows northeast along the shelf with high temperature, high salinity and low nutrient concentrations (Gong et al., 2003 and Hung et al., 2009b). As a whole, the hydrographic setting in this survey in spring was similar to that reported for previous investigations (Gong et al., 2003 and Chou et al., 2009). Fig. 2 shows contour maps of surface salinity, NO3−, Chl-a and plankton biomass in the ECS.

Those were indicated by an interaction of the factors Target,

Those were indicated by an interaction of the factors Target, GSK2118436 solubility dmso Region and Hemisphere (F(1, 17) = 6.34, p < .05). Over posterior left regions, amplitudes to initially stressed targets were more negative than ERP amplitudes to initially unstressed targets, t(17) = 8.61, p = .01 (see Fig. 7). It appears that this effect reflects delayed word processing of initially stressed targets compared to initially unstressed targets. Indeed, analysis of the latency of the negative peak between 300 and 600 ms over posterior left electrodes indicates a significant difference

between both conditions, t(17) = 4.09, p < .001. The peak occurred approximately 20 ms later for initially stressed targets compared to initially unstressed targets (see Fig. 7). Crucially with respect to our hypotheses, there was an interaction of the factors Stress Priming and Region (F(1, 17) = 9.06, p < .01). Over anterior regions, amplitudes for Stress Match were more negative compared to amplitudes for Stress Mismatch, t(17) = 2.88, p = .01. Over posterior regions, the opposite pattern was observed, CHIR-99021 order t(17) = 3.07, p < .01, Fig.

6. Mean ERPs and topographical voltage maps for the main effect of Stress Priming are illustrated in Fig. 6. None of the interactions including the factors Stress Priming and Target did approach significance, F ⩽ 1.08, p ⩾ 0.3. This indicates similar ERP stress priming for initially stressed target words and initially unstressed target words. The overall ANOVA revealed a significant interaction of the factors Phoneme Priming and Region, F(1, 17) = 7.68, p = .01. Over

anterior electrode leads, Phoneme Match elicited more positive amplitudes than Phoneme Mismatch, t(17) = 2.85, p = .01. Over posterior regions, the opposite pattern was observed, t(17) = 2.56, p = .02. There was neither a main effect of the factor Stress Priming or Target, nor any interaction including one or both of Baf-A1 solubility dmso these factors. In sum, there was robust phoneme priming in the behavioral data and in the ERPs. Phoneme match facilitated lexical decisions. Between 100 and 300 ms, phoneme match elicited enhanced N100 amplitudes and reduced P200 amplitudes in the ERPs. Between 600 and 900 ms, phoneme match elicited reduced posterior negativity paralleled by enhanced frontal negativity. Only a single time window in the consecutive 50 ms analyses (350–400 ms) was indicative for phoneme priming in the P350 and central negativity time window. We did not find reliable stress priming in the behavioral data, but there was robust ERP stress priming. Stress match elicited reduced posterior negativity paralleled by enhanced frontal positivity between 300 and 600 ms. Phoneme priming and Stress priming did not interact. We could not ensure that initially stressed and initially unstressed target words were exactly comparable.

It could be associated with the genotype of these animals Howeve

It could be associated with the genotype of these animals. However, different evidence raise the hypothesis that both pre and postnatal periods are directly related to maternal contact and contribute more significantly to the growth delay in SHR rather than the genetic susceptibility.16, 17 and 18 As previously observed,2, 4, 7, 19, 20, 21 and 22 the mean weight gain

of female SHR during pregnancy and lactation periods, SHR foetal weight, litter size and postpartum development of SHR pups PLX-4720 research buy were lower than those observed for normotensive rats. Maternal factors acting in the uterus or through the milk would have major impact on the pre and postnatal development of SHR. These factors seem to be mainly correlated with the nutrition of the foetus or newborn rat.16, 17 and 18 Alterations in the mammary gland activity were also observed in female SHR,23 with production of lower quality and quantity of milk. Clinical and experimental studies associate the reduction of salivary activity with pre or postnatal delayed development, resulted from deficient nutrition or related factors. Undernourished children PD-332991 have the stimulated SFR reduced.24 Nineteen-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats treated with a deficient protein diet

had reduced body weight and SFR.25 Deprivation of iron in the diet also decreases the SFR in 21-day-old rats, suggesting that lack of iron in this period of growth and development causes changes in the salivary gland activity.26 As observed in the present study, SHR at the different ages showed reduced salivary parameters when compared with their respective normotensive controls. We observed a significant increase in the SFR of 12-week-old in relation to 4-week-old normotensive rats. This observation is in agreement with other experimental and clinical studies that associated the SFR increase with human and animal development. Clinically, it has been demonstrated that the SFR increases progressively from childhood to adolescence.27 However, this increase was not observed between SHR at different ages. We have previously observed3 that 4-week-old SHR had reduced SFR stimulated by pilocarpine when compared

with Wistar rats Olopatadine of the same age. In the present study, reduced SFR was noted when 12-week-old SHR was compared to Wistar rat at same age. The salivary flow values (per animal weight) were not different between 4 and 12-week-old SHR. Thus, these data suggest that the altered SFR was maintained even with the growth/development of these animals. Other authors28 and 29 also observed reduced SFR after pilocarpine stimulation in 22-week-old SHRs or after isoproterenol stimulation in 16–18-week-old SHR, supposing that the SFR in SHR is reduced, regardless of the type of stimulation (muscarinic or adrenergic). All together, the results demonstrated that the reduced SFR observed in SHR was independent of the age or the rise of arterial blood pressure.

Plus récemment, il s’est impliqué dans la création du laboratoire

Plus récemment, il s’est impliqué dans la création du laboratoire de recherche préclinique en médecine Buparlisib périnatale à la faculté de médecine de Lille après un séjour avec le professeur François-René Pruvot et moi-même dans le laboratoire du professeur Steven Abman, à Denver, Colorado, pour apprendre la technique de la chirurgie fœtale expérimentale. Les résultats de ses actions ont été remarquables. À la suite du professeur

Alexandre Minkowski, et avec ses nombreux collègues et amis dont les professeurs Michel Dehan, Guy Moriette, Jean Laugier et Paul Vert, il a largement contribué au développement de la médecine néonatale dans notre pays. Il a participé à la mise en place des Groupes d’étude en néonatologie (GEN), puis de la fédération

nationale des GEN, et enfin de la Société française de néonatologie. Les Journées francophones de recherche en néonatalogie (JFRN) ont été créées avec son appui. Convaincu qu’un des enjeux essentiels du devenir des nouveau-nés était lié au partage d’expériences entre obstétriciens et néonatologistes, il s’investit dans la médecine périnatale. Le duo efficace et solide, formé avec le professeur Francis Puech, est cité comme exemple dans les maternités. En 2008, la nouvelle Revue de médecine périnatale voit le jour sous sa houlette. Il a été à l’initiative des réseaux de périnatalité et président du réseau de la métropole lilloise. L’originalité de sa démarche a été de toujours chercher à élargir le champ des expertises au-delà de l’obstétrique et de la néonatologie, en associant étroitement à la communauté des périnatologistes, d’autres collègues comme, par exemple, le professeur Françoise Molénat (pédopsychiatre), le professeur Gérard Bréart (épidémiologie périnatale), ou le Dr Roger Vasseur (médecin

rééducateur). C’est cette même ouverture d’esprit qui explique son désir de décloisonner la néonatologie hospitalière. Très tôt, il a montré les bénéfices d’un rapprochement avec la pédiatrie communautaire et libérale. Il a été l’un des premiers à organiser le suivi et l’accompagnement des enfants prématurés et PAK5 de leur famille en lien avec la protection maternelle et infantile (PMI), les centres d’action médicosociale précoce (CAMSP) et les pédiatres libéraux. Dans son service, les parents étaient accueillis auprès de leur enfant autant le jour que la nuit à une époque où la plupart des unités de réanimation n’ouvraient leur porte que quelques heures par jour. Il a toujours souhaité faire entendre la parole des parents. Indiscutablement, le professeur Pierre Lequien a été l’un des fondateurs de la médecine périnatale actuelle. Il n’est pas possible d’être exhaustif sur ses réalisations. Je ne citerai que quelques-unes dont j’ai connaissance. Avec le professeur Michel Delecour, il a porté le projet de rapprochement des 2 maternités universitaires du Nord-Pas-de-Calais et le service de néonatologie dans l’hôpital Jeanne-de-Flandre.

The water temperature at the two sites demonstrated a clear seaso

The water temperature at the two sites demonstrated a clear seasonal variation between the winter minimum (18.1 °C) in February and the summer maximum (29.1 °C) in July (Figure 2). The pH ranged from 7.85 to 8.60 at Abu-Qir and from 8.10 to 9.00 at El-Mex. Salinity displayed a narrow variation (38.4–39.9‰) at Abu-Qir, in contrast to the wide variation (24.4–39.8%) at El-Mex (Figure 3), which receives a large volume of waste water from El-Umoum Drain. DO was high (7.1–10 mg l− 1) at Abu-Qir selleck kinase inhibitor but varied widely at El-Mex, between 4.4 and 14.6 mg l− 1. BOD was lower at the stressed site (El-Mex) (1.1–5.7 mg l− 1) than at Abu-Qir

(3.3–7.4 mg l− 1). During the study period the biometric measurements and reproductive examination were carried out on a total of 447 and 822 specimens of Pseudonereis anomala from Abu Qir and El Mex respectively. The monthly number of worms examined depended upon their monthly abundance at each site and is given in Figure 4. A high percentage of the worms from Abu Qir (46.2%) were from > 2 to 4 cm long, and a significant proportion (35%) were between > 4 and 6 cm long. Both length ranges were dominant at El Mex but in the reverse order: 31.7% were > 2–4 cm long Pexidartinib manufacturer and 42.9% had a length of > 4–6 cm.

On the other hand, shorter individuals (< 2 cm) made a greater contribution to the Abu Qir population (5.9%) than to the El Mex population (1.9%), while longer ones (> 6–12 cm) were less prevalent (13.5%) at Abu Qir than at El Mex (23.5%). The respective lengths of the shortest worms were very similar (1.1 and 1 cm) in both areas, occurring during autumn (September and October respectively). Meanwhile, the longest individuals in the two areas were females, attaining a greater length (11.9 cm)

at El Mex in February, against 9.8 cm at Abu Qir in both June and July. On a monthly scale, the length range of > 2–4 cm prevailed over the > 4–6 cm Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 length range during a significant part of the year at Abu Qir, whereas both ranges made similar contributions during the rest of the year (Figure 4). At El Mex, the range of > 4–6 cm prevailed for most of the year, whereas higher percentages of the > 2–4 cm range were recorded during only 4 months (Figure 5). The minimum biomass (0.004 g) was the same at both sites in September, but the maximum biomass (0.768 g) at Abu Qir was recorded in both June and July and was markedly smaller than that (1.303 g) at El Mex in February. The majority of the Abu Qir worms (79%) weighted ≤ 0.2 g against 65% at El Mex, but the proportions of the greater weight classes (> 0.2–0.4 g and > 0.4–0.8 g) were lower at Abu Qir (17% and 4% respectively) than at El Mex (22.3% and 10.6% respectively). Meanwhile, worms weighing > 0.8 g made up 2.1% of the El Mex population, but were wholly lacking at Abu Qir. The formulas of the length-weight relationship of P.

In this case, reducing the replication level to four


In this case, reducing the replication level to four

cultures per Selleckchem AZD4547 dose would have a negligible effect on resolving power (30–40%). Data from individual experiments could be combined into one larger analysis. However, care should be taken with this approach. The methods discussed here were powered and designed to find differences within an experiment, not across several experiments. By combining experiments, small differences that are not scientifically relevant, might acquire statistical significance. This statistical approach was developed to compare PMs, but could also be applied to comparing other products’ in vitro genotoxicities. It could add confidence to any differences observed and limit apparent similarities to the resolving power of the assay. While in vitro tests alone cannot measure human risk, they can contribute to a Weight of Evidence paradigm for the risk assessment of

Reduced Toxicant Prototype (RTP) tobacco products. Together with smoke composition, in vitro disease models, ERK inhibitor appropriate in vivo data, bio-markers of exposure and of biological effect, and smoking behaviour data, in vitro genotoxicity studies can help to test the hypothesis that the biological significance of exposure to tobacco and/or tobacco smoke toxicants from RTP tobacco products has been reduced, without introducing new genotoxic hazards. The authors are employees of British American Tobacco, except for J Saul who is employed by Covance CYTH4 Laboratories. British American Tobacco funded this research as part of its tobacco harm reduction scientific programme. The authors declare

that no financial or personal conflicts of interest exist with regard to the submission of the manuscript entitled “The resolving power of in vitro genotoxicity assays for cigarette smoke particulate matter”. The Ames test, IVMNT and MLA were performed by Covance Laboratories. “
“Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a type IV hypersensitivity reaction, mediated by effector CD8+ and CD4+ T cells (Fonacier et al., 2010). The disease is caused by low molecular weight (LMW) compounds, which act as haptens that form a functional allergen after binding to endogenous proteins present in skin. During the sensitization phase of ACD, the protein is taken up by dermal dendritic cells (DCs) that are present in the epidermis at the site of exposure. Consequently, DCs will mature and migrate to local lymph nodes, presenting fragments of the LMW complex on either MHC class I or II, depending on the route of antigen uptake (Friedmann, 2006). Provided that the DCs also become activated and signal using co-stimulatory molecules, as reviewed in (Martin et al., 2011), this antigen presentation will lead to differentiation of naïve T cells into specific effector and memory T cells.