Methods. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the patients who underwent CXL between 2010 and 2013 at the Beirut Eye Specialist Hospital, Lebanon. Progression of keratectasia was based on the presence of an increase in maximum keratometry of 1.00 D, a change in the map difference between two consecutive topographies of 1.00 D, a deterioration of visual acuity, or any change in the refraction. Primary and redo CXL were done using the same protocol. Results. Among the 221 eyes of 130 patients who underwent CXL, 7 eyes (3.17%) of five patients met the criteria of progression. All patients reported a history of allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing selleck screening library and progressed within 9 to 48 months. No complications were noted and all patients were stable 1 year after CXL redo. Conclusion. Allergic conjunctivitis and eye rubbing were the only risk factors associated with keratoconus progression after CXL. A close followup is thus mandatory, even years after the procedure. CXL redo seems to be a safe and efficient technique to halt the progression after a primary CXL.”
“Filamentous microorganisms of the bacterial genus Streptomyces have a complex life cycle that includes physiological and morphological differentiations.
It is now fairly well accepted that lysis of Streptomyces vegetative mycelium induced by programmed cell death (PCD) provides the required nutritive sources for the
bacterium to erect spore-forming VX-680 aerial hyphae. However, little is known regarding cellular compounds released during PCD and the contribution of these molecules to the feeding of surviving cells in order to allow them to reach the late stages of the developmental program. In this work we assessed the effect of extracellular sugar phosphates (that are likely to be released in the environment upon cell lysis) GSK1210151A on the differentiation processes. We demonstrated that the supply of phosphorylated sugars, under inorganic phosphate limitation, delays the occurrence of the second round of PCD, blocks streptomycetes life cycle at the vegetative state and inhibits antibiotic production. The mechanism by which sugar phosphates affect development was shown to involve genes of the Pho regulon that are under the positive control of the two component system PhoR/PhoP. Indeed, the inactivation of the response regulator phoP of Streptomyces lividans prevented the ‘sugar phosphate effect’ whereas the S. lividans ppk (polyphosphate kinase) deletion mutant, known to overexpress the Pho regulon, presented an enhanced response to phosphorylated sugars.”
“Cyt1Aa is the major and most active component of the parasporal crystal of the Gram-positive soil entomopathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis. The Cyt1Aa protoxin exhibits some hemolytic and cytolytic activity.