Here, we report novel yet undescribed localization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 at the mRNA and protein level SBI-0206965 in the rat central nervous system. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the localization of NUCB2/nesfatin-1 in the piriform and insular cortex, endopiriform
nucleus, nucleus accumbens, lateral septum, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, central amygdaloid nucleus, medial preoptic area, dorsal raphe nucleus, ambiguus nucleus, ventrolateral medulla and gigantocellular reticular nucleus, as well as Purkinje-cells of the cerebellum. In the spinal cord, nesfatin-1 immunoreactivity (IR) was found in both sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neuronal groups and in the dorsal area X from lower thoracic to sacral segments. The immunohistochemical results were confirmed by RT-PCR
in the central amygdaloid nucleus, nucleus accumbens, cerebellum and lumbar spinal cord microdissected by punch technique. The features and distributions of nesfatin-1 IR and mRNA expression in the brain and spinal cord suggest that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 could play a wider role in autonomic regulation of visceral-endocrine functions besides food intake. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.”
“The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a marine ecological key species in the Northern Atlantic food web. This species was exposed to an artificially weathered North Sea oil buy LY411575 dispersion (oil droplets and water-soluble fractions [WSF]) and a filtered dispersion Sitaxentan (containing only WSF) in serial dilution. Female copepods were divided into lipid-rich and lipid-poor for each exposure followed by gene expression analyses of glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P-450 330A1 (CYP330A1). Lipid-rich copepods exhibited elevated transcription of GST and reduced transcription of CYP330A1 after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. In contrast, lipid-poor copepods exhibited increased transcription of CYP330A1 following exposure to WSF but not the dispersion. Data suggested that small lipid storage promotes increased bioavailability of accumulated oil compounds.
Variations in response in CYP330A1 gene expression indicate that oil constituents may exert different modes of toxic action in copepods depending on their reproductive stages. The contribution of oil droplets to the observed effects seemed to be low as GST gene expression was similar after exposure to both dispersed oil and WSF. However, feeding rate in copepods exposed to dispersed oil was reduced, and this may have decreased the uptake of oil constituents via the diet. Although quantitatively higher mortality was observed in copepods exposed to the highest dispersion levels, this may result from smothering of animals by oil droplets. Furthermore, increasing dilution of both the dispersions and the WSF altered their distributions and chemical composition, which may influence the bioavailability of spilled crude oil to pelagic marine organisms.