4). For example, if there are flights at 1,000 m, 200 m and 500 m altitudes, then we choose one of the heights as a reference range (e.g., 200 m). By multiplying the raw intensity values by the range squared, divided by the reference range squared (see Figure. 4), the effect of the energy loss due to the flying height is compensated and the intensity values from different heights are comparable.Because the laser beam is travelling through the atmosphere, it is affected by the components and the conditions of the atmosphere. This is called the atmospheric effect. The exact atmospheric conditions are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, a MODTRAN Ver. 3 program for modeling the atmospheric conditions is used. This program calculates the total atmospheric transmittance, using the program��s inner atmospheric layers and user-defined input parameters.
In this study, a mid-latitude summer model and visibility of 23 km (Espoonlahti Harbor is situated in a suburban area) was used. Other input parameters were: flying height, path length (assumed here to be the same as flying heights), and the wavelength range. Since all the sensors use 1,064 nm wavelength, the wavelength range was chosen from 1,063 nm to 1,065 nm. The path length is the distance over what the program calculates the total transmittance. The raw intensity values for atmospheric effect can be corrected by multiplying with 1/T2  (because the laser beam travels from sensor to the ground and back), where T is the total transmittance calculated by MODTRAN Ver. 3.The amount of energy that the laser uses is connected to the pulse repetition frequency (PRF).
With high PRF values, the amount of energy that is transmitted with every pulse is lower than with the low PRF values [5,13]. The other important factor is pulse width. It is usually a few nanoseconds and is defined to be the time when the pulse power is continuously above half its maximum . Pulses with shorter
An important vegetation biophysical parameter, the leaf area index (LAI), is a dimensionless variable and a ratio of leaf area to per unit ground surface area. This ratio can be related to gas-vegetation exchange processes such as photosynthesis , evaporation and transpiration [2�C4], rainfall interception , and carbon flux [6�C8]. Long-term monitoring of LAI can provide an understanding of dynamic changes in productivity and climate impacts on forest ecosystems.
Furthermore, Anacetrapib LAI can serve as an indicator of stress in forests, thus, it can be used to examine relationships between environmental stress factors and forest insect damage . Emerging remote sensing platforms and techniques can complement existing ground-based measurement of LAI. Spatially explicit measurements of LAI extracted from remotely sensed data are an indispensible component necessary for modeling and simulation of ecological variables and processes [10,11].