Three pools were made to avoid excessive relative dilution of ind

Three pools were made to avoid excessive relative dilution of individual peptides. Pool #1 additionally included the matrix protein epitope GILGFVFTL (a human but not a murine epitope). A single large pool of listeriolysin peptides (15-mers overlapping by 11) was the kind gift small molecule library screening of Cerus Corporation (Concord, CA, USA). The study was reviewed and supervised by a local institutional review board (Massachusetts General

Hospital) and Biosafety Committee (Harvard Medical School Committee on Microbiological Safety). The study was also reviewed and approved by the NIH/NIAID Prevention Science Review Committee, an independent Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) (three physicians with expertise in listeriosis, clinical trials and enteric infections), an NIH physician medical monitor, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, BB IND #12760). All of these groups appreciated the goals of the study to be the further evaluation of safety and physiological and immunological responses to listerial vectors, and selleckchem not as a prelude to the development of a new influenza vaccine, and found it ethically acceptable. All subjects provided written informed consent to participate. Healthy men and women, aged 18–45 years old, were recruited by advertising and

underwent a complete screening physical exam and standard laboratory procedures, as described previously (9). Potential volunteers must have previously tolerated a course

of therapy with penicillin or ampicillin. In addition to standard clinical screening laboratories, volunteers were required to have normal iron studies, normal liver function tests, and a pre-study stool sample that was negative Pregnenolone for routine enteric pathogens, ova and parasites, as well as L. monocytogenes. Subjects were not HLA haplotyped, as this would have been prohibitively limiting and expensive. Subjects were also not screened in any way for previous exposure to L. monocytogenes or for previous influenza exposure, expecting that most would have been previously exposed, especially to influenza. L. monocytogenes are ubiquitous organisms, despite best food safety efforts. It was hypothesized that existing immunity to influenza or listerial antigens might be “boosted” by this oral vaccination. Frozen inocula (0.9% w/v saline with 20% glycerol, 1.3 mL/vial) were produced utilizing good manufacturing practices by contract with the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Pilot Bioproduction Facility (Silver Spring, MD, USA), a requirement of the funder. Vials were thawed at 4°C for 15 min and diluted with 0.9% saline for administration to volunteers in 30 mL. Based on spread plate cultures prior to freezing and multiple assessments of thawed vials, each inoculation of a given number of live colony forming units (CFU) also contained approximately two-fold greater dead organisms, or residual thereof.

Our findings demonstrate patency of the inferior epigastric vesse

Our findings demonstrate patency of the inferior epigastric vessels after ligation for TRAM delay during the

time frame usually used for delay to take effect. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2014. “
“In this report, we present a case of treatment of fibrous dysplasia (FD) of the proximal femur with the pedicled iliac crest bone graft. An 18-year-old patient presented with hip pain and polyostotic dysplasia with involvement of the proximal femur and a history of pathological fracture. The patient was operated on using vascularized bone graft from the iliac crest and osteosynthesis with Dynamic Hip Screw (DHS®). With vascularized bone graft, we found an improvement on X-ray with no reabsorption, and with osteosynthesis, we controlled the pain and prevented pathological fracture and mTOR inhibitor progression of the deformity. Several other studies where the pedicled iliac crest bone graft has been successfully used for the management of defects in the proximal femur (osteonecrosis of the femoral head and pseudarthrosis of the femoral head) can be found in the medical literature. However, the pedicled iliac crest bone graft in a patient with FD of the proximal femur is unique. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011. “
“Introduction: Restoring elbow flexion remains the

first step in the management of total palsy of the brachial plexus. Non avulsed upper roots may be grafted on the musculocutaneous nerve. When this nerve is entirely grafted, some motor fibres regenerate within the sensory fibres quota. Aiming potential utilization of these lost motor fibres, we attempted suturing the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. The objective of our study was to assess the anatomic feasibility of such direct suturing of the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous Etoposide in vitro nerve onto the deep branch of the radial nerve. Methods: The study was carried out with 10 upper limbs from fresh cadavers. The sensory branch of the musculocutaneous muscle was dissected right to its division. The motor branch of the radial nerve was identified and dissected

as proximally as possible into the radial nerve. Then, the distance separating the two nerves was measured so as to assess whether direct neurorraphy of the two branches was feasible. Results: The excessive distance between the two branches averaged 6 mm (1–13 mm). Thus, direct neurorraphy of the sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve and the deep branch of the radial nerve was possible. Conclusions: When the whole musculocutaneous nerve is grafted, some of its motor fibres are lost amongst the sensory fibres (cutaneous lateral antebrachial nerve). By suturing this sensory branch onto the deep branch of the radial nerve, “lost” fibres may be retrieved, resulting in restoration of digital extension. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery, 2011.

Based on this data, it is surprising that the possibility that th

Based on this data, it is surprising that the possibility that the entrance of mature cells into the thymus could be a common occurrence during the acute phase of an infectious/inflammatory process has not been generally addressed, since a large proportion of T and B cells acquire an activated phenotype in these situations. Moreover, thymocyte depletion observed in

several infectious disease models could even increase the possibility of peripheral cell migration into the thymus considering reports describing Palbociclib mouse that when the cellularity of this organ is compromised (neonatal, irradiation, SCID mice, atrophic aged thymi, etc.), peripheral cell infiltration into the thymus considerably increases [4, 6, 18, 19]. In this context, the aim of this work is to demonstrate Metformin that migration of peripheral T and B cells

to the thymus occurs during the early phase of Th1 inflammatory/infectious processes triggered by different type of pathogens. In support of this hypothesis, we examine the entrance of B and T cells into the thymus in well-established Th1 infectious/inflammatory murine models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that peripheral T cells and B cells but not NK cells, macrophages, or DCs largely migrate to the thymus under inflammatory/infectious conditions but only when the cellularity of the organ is compromised. Moreover, the entrance of peripheral lymphocytes to the thymus necessarily requires monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) production in this Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 organ and CCR2 expression

on migrating lymphocytes. Importantly, we demonstrate as a general mechanism that this phenomenon is triggered by IL-12 and IL-18 produced during the acute phase of Th1/inflammatory/infectious processes. Moreover, our data with OVA-specific TCR transgenic mice suggest that rather than being a TCR-dependent mechanism, any T cell has the potential to migrate to the thymus in response to inflammatory conditions. To address if migration into the thymus of mature peripheral lymphocytes is a common feature of Th1-driven inflammatory/infectious processes, we adoptively transferred CFSE-labeled splenocytes from mice either treated in vivo with LPS (a bacterial product) or infected with a fungus (Candida albicans) or a parasite (Trypanosoma cruzi) to recipient hosts that have received the same treatments. All these pathological conditions are characterized by a potent Th1 immune response, especially during the acute phase of the process [20-23]. Data presented in Fig. 1 demonstrate that after LPS treatment (Fig. 1A), C. albicans (Fig. 1B), or T. cruzi (Fig. 1C) infections, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells together with B cells entered the thymus in different proportions.

Systemic autoimmune diseases can be modeled in transgenic mice ha

Systemic autoimmune diseases can be modeled in transgenic mice harboring defects in DC apoptosis 10 but not in mice with apoptosis defects in T and B cells 11–13. Our study shows that in addition to the dogma of DC apoptosis as a mechanism to eliminate activated DC to prevent hyperactivation of the immune response, DC apoptosis also plays an

active role in induction and maintenance of tolerance through induction of Treg, whereby defects in DC apoptosis may trigger autoimmunity. High levels of spontaneous DC apoptosis have also been observed in breast cancer patients, with its significance being unclear 15, 16. Our study indicates that DC apoptosis in cancer patients may play a role in suppressing immune responses against the tumor by inducing immunosuppression and tolerance. Therefore, prevention R788 clinical trial of DC apoptosis may enhance the therapeutic

effects of chemotherapy in tumor click here eradication 15, 16. Our findings may also represent a therapeutic approach in the prevention of unwanted immune responses in autoimmune diseases and transplantation along with inhibition of DC apoptosis to assist in tumor eradication. C57BL/6 mice were purchased from Charles River Laboratories (St. Constant, QC) and maintained as per guidelines of SickKids animal facilities. All the animal studies were reviewed and approved by the SickKids Institutional Committee for humane use of laboratory animals. OT-II mice were purchased from Jackson Laboratories (Bar Harbor, ME). The following antibodies were purchased from eBioscience (San Diego, CA): CD11c PE, CD86 PE, CD80 PE, MHC II PE, IL-10 Alexa647, IL-12 APC, IL-17 PE, Foxp3 PE along with neutralizing

IL-4 and IFN-γ Ab, and the following from BD Biosciences (Mississauga, ON): CD11c-FITC, CD4-FITC and CD3-PE. Anti-TGF-β neutralizing Ab (MAB1835) was obtained from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN). Isotype control IgG were obtained from eBioscience and/or Atazanavir Serotec (Raleigh, NC). CFSE was obtained from Molecular Probes (Burlington, ON); BrdU, OVA, cytochalasin D, rapamycin and PI were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (Oakville, ON). GM-CSF was obtained from R&D Systems. IL-6 and TGF-β were obtained from Peprotech (Rocky Hill, NJ). Bone marrow cells were isolated from tibia and femurs of adult mice and cultured in the presence of GM-CSF for 7 days as described previously 34. DC were harvested and stained with 1 μM CFSE as described previously 35. Naïve CD4+CD25–CD62L+ T cells were isolated from spleens of mice using CD4+CD62L+ naïve T-cell isolation kit in conjunction with MACS columns from Miltenyi Biotec (Auburn, CA), following the manufacturer’s instructions. DC were cultured on a six-well dish and irradiated for 2 min with a UV transilluminator, with a peak intensity of 9000 mW/cm2 at the filter surface and a peak emission of 313 nm.

Owen et al designed and implemented a predialysis clinical pathw

Owen et al. designed and implemented a predialysis clinical pathway, which led to improved outcomes with late referrals (GFR <10 mL/min) falling from 29% to 6%.61 As a consequence, median time to

initiation of dialysis improved from <1 to 14 months and permanent access at the time of initial dialysis increased from 24% to 83%. Paris et al. studied 1137 patients from 15 centres starting dialysis.62 Early referral was defined as >2 months before initiation of dialysis. Eighty-six per cent of these had permanent access and 44% commenced with peritoneal dialysis. Units with structured predialysis Raf inhibitor education programmes had higher rates overall of permanent access (66.3% vs 48.2%) and more patients on peritoneal dialysis (40% vs 22%). Peña et al. investigated 178 patients who started haemodialysis and survived at least 3 months.63 Patients with acute kidney injury were excluded. Early referral was defined as >4 months before dialysis commencement (139 early and 39 late). Late referral was associated with a worse clinical and metabolic state and was an independent risk factor for mortality in the first 2 years. Roderick et al. in a retrospective study of 361 patients identified 124 (35%) as late referrals (<4 months before starting dialysis).64 Of these, 84 were referred <1 month before starting dialysis. There was evidence

of CKD in all late referrals. Late referrals were older with more comorbidities, worse biochemistry, less permanent access, were more likely to start on haemodialysis rather than predialysis and

had a higher rate of hospitalization (P = 0.001) and death at 6 months (P = 0.002). Roubicek et al. in Opaganib chemical structure a study of 270 patients defined 177 as early referral (>16 weeks before the start of dialysis) and 93 as late (<16 weeks).65 The late referral group had higher short-term morbidity (emergency dialysis, acute pulmonary oedema, severe hypertension, use of temporary vascular access and duration of hospitalization). However, in this retrospective study, survival at 3 months, 12 months and 5 years was the same for the two groups. Sabath et al. studied 163 patients commencing predialysis with 94 defined as early referrals (>3 months before Florfenicol first dialysis) and 69 as late referrals (<3 months).66 Early referral patients had a shorter duration of hospitalization in the first 6 months, fewer emergency catheter placements and better biochemistry and haemoglobin. Schwenger et al. reviewed 280 patients. Of these, 137 were late referral (<17 weeks prior to starting dialysis) and 143 early referral (>17 weeks prior). The median time of referral was 17 weeks.67 Late referred patients had a higher incidence of temporary vascular access and increased mortality at 12 months (34.2% vs 5.5%). In a subsequent paper, Schwenger et al. from Heidelberg68 reported on a group of 254 consecutive patients with late referral defined as less than 8 weeks before initiation of dialysis.

Integrin α4β7 and CCR9 expression is induced in naive lymph cells

Integrin α4β7 and CCR9 expression is induced in naive lymph cells by retinoic acid (RA), produced by intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) or by stromal cells in MLN [8,9]. The regulatory phenotype of naive T cells is also induced by transforming

growth factor (TGF)-β, a cytokine produced by DCs, mainly by the CD103+αvβ8+ subset of DCs. TGF-β promotes the peripheral Veliparib chemical structure expression of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3) in naive T cells, thus becoming induced Treg (iTreg) [10]. DCs from MLN are instructed to promote the regulatory phenotype in the encountered naive T cells at the time of antigen uptake in the intestinal mucosa. There are two major cell populations with functions in antigen sampling and processing, in LP: CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes (CX3C chemokine receptor 1 is also known as the fractalkine receptor) and CD103+ (αE integrin) DCs [11]. Although CX3CR1+ phagocytes have several features specific for DCs, there is no evidence for their entry into lymphatics and migration to MLN [12] and, thereupon, for their involvement in Treg induction. Furthermore, it appears that CX3CR1+ cells actually participate in priming T helper type 17 (Th17) inflammatory responses [13] to certain bacterial components, sampled directly from the intestinal lumen [14]. CD103+ DCs thus remain the most important candidates for the development

of Tregs in MLN, after antigen sampling and migration from LP. Their activity relies on the production of RA and TGF-β. RA synthesis is catalyzed by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type (RALDH), an enzyme which is not expressed selleck chemicals llc by CD103+ DCs at the time of their arrival in LP [15]. This leads us to the conclusion that DCs evolve towards a regulatory phenotype after entering the intestinal mucosa. The microenvironment in LP is thus responsible see more for initiating the chain of events that polarize DCs and, respectively, the phenotype of T cells educated by DCs. Given the importance of the gut environment in the polarization of immune cells, one would expect enterocytes to contribute significantly in shaping this microenvironment. In this study we

will present the mechanisms orchestrated by enterocytes, together with DCs, in the development of this nursery for tolerant T cells. The digestion of luminal nutrients participates significantly in the degradation of epitopes which could give rise to unwanted immune responses. Digestion processes take place mainly in the small intestine – chemical digestion is completed here before the chyme reaches the large intestine, which produces no digestive enzymes. The small intestine is the site where most of the nutrients are absorbed, whereas electrolytes such as sodium, magnesium and chloride, and vitamins such as vitamin K, are internalized in the colon. However, digestive processes cannot lyse all food proteins to the amino acid level.

The study population included HIV-infected children and adolescen

The study population included HIV-infected children and adolescents that had been comprehensively studied by CD38 expression on CD8 T cell

and LPR to mycotic antigens along with traditional VL and CD4. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminatory potential of CD38 expression and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferation to differentiate non-responders and a mixed population of responders with full and partial virus suppression on HAART and two NRTIs suppressive regimens. According to guidelines [4–6], two NRTIs backbone CHIR-99021 solubility dmso is not longer considered preferred, although at the time of the study was still in use and at present continues to be used in developing countries where the cost of antiretroviral agent drives the antiretroviral therapy.

We found CD38 expression on CD8 T cell accurately discriminates responders versus non-responders. CD38 ABC has long been recommended as a more accurate measure of CD38 staining than %CD38/CD8, due to the unimodal heterogeneous CD38 expression [20, 22]. However, in our study, CD38 ABC and %CD38/CD8, showed a good correlation, a high concordance, resulting their cutoff points in the same responder and non-responder frequencies and in identical sensitivity and specificity. However they did not classify all patients in the same way. For this reason the combination of the two assays in alternative way, ‘either CD38 ABC or %CD38/CD8’ improved sensitivity to 83.3%. Conversely, the combination ‘CD38 ABC and %CD38/CD8’ decreases sensitivity to 66.7%. Studies in adults and paediatric patients [9, 26, 27] have looked at the correlation of VL and CD38 expression finding LY294002 solubility dmso that as a VL decreases so does activation, supporting the

use of CD38 expression as a marker of viral replication to monitor response to therapy. In adults a direct association ID-8 between CD38 expression and viral replication was observed only in patients with >400 copies HIV-1 RNA/ml [28]. The low level of activation observed in subjects with full virus suppression (<50 copies/ml) may be due to factors other than plasma viraemia, such as proinflammatory cytokines, microbial products, residual HIV replication in lymph nodes. Steel et al. [(29] found the sensitivity and specificity of CD8 CD38high percentage to detect HIV-1 viraemia was 85% and 81% respectively at a viral load of 10,000 HIV-1 copies/ml. Accordingly we found 75% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity for both CD38 ABC and %CD38/CD8, and sensitivity improved to 83.3% when the two assays for CD38 expression were combined in alternative way. CI intervals included values reported by Steel et al., although our patients were distinguished in responders and non-responders and not stratified by viraemia. In particular, a high CD38 expression level seems to be satisfactory at identify non-responders, while low CD38 expression level, especially in combination with good LPR, identify responders.

There were no false positives or negatives in either group One f

There were no false positives or negatives in either group. One flap loss in the clinically monitored group resulted in limb amputation (the only amputation in the cohort). Conclusion: A trend toward early detection and salvage of flaps with anastomotic insufficiency was seen with the use of the Cook–Swartz implantable

Doppler probe. These findings suggest a Enzalutamide cell line possible benefit of this technique as a stand-alone or adjunctive tool in the clinical monitoring of free flaps, with further investigation warranted into the broader application of these devices. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 30:354–360, 2010. “
“In this report, we present a case in which a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was transferred for head and neck reconstruction after oropharyngeal cancer ablation, and a retrograde arterial inflow was used to salvage the flap when the main arterial pedicle showed usual repeated spasms. The flap was raised as a chimera flap comprising a fasciocutaneous flap and a vastus lateralis muscle flap. After reperfusion, the pedicle artery exhibited spasms repeatedly and vascular flow was unstable. Therefore, we performed arterial supercharge. In the distal portion of the muscle flap, a small arterial branch was dissected as a reverse-flow arterial pedicle. The recipient artery was Sotrastaurin supplier also a retrograde limb of the superior thyroid artery. The flap survived; however, postoperative ultrasonographic echo evaluation revealed that the spastic descending

branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery was obstructed and that the reverse-flow muscular perforator alone nourished the whole flap. In free ALT flap transfer, a small perforator level artery was able to nourish a flap, even in a retrograde manner. Moreover, when the vasculature of the free flap is unstable, retrograde arterial supply to a small perforator can be an option to save the flap transfer. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Fluorometholone Acetate Inc. Microsurgery, 2012. “
“In the treatment of head and neck carcinoma,

radical cervical lymphadenectomy leaves the affected side of the neck devoid of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, thus more vulnerable to the unwanted side effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy. It also causes asymmetry and cosmetically unpleasant appearance of the cervical region. In the reported case with widely ulcerated squamous-cell carcinoma over mandible, hemimandibulectomy and radical neck dissection was performed. Following the mandibular reconstruction, the lateral hemisoleus muscle of the harvested osteomyocutaneous fibula flap was utilized to restore the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid region. This new application promises to be a useful method, which can aid in the restoration of the aesthetic contour of the neck and provide protection against unwanted effects of the adjuvant radiotherapy on the ipsilateral carotid artery. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2011. “
“Soft palate reconstruction is one of the greatest challenges for reconstructive surgeons.

At a more detailed level it is likely that the exact peptides tar

At a more detailed level it is likely that the exact peptides targeted, their ability to mutate and escape T cell recognition and the sensitivity of the individual

T cells to peptide all play a major role. All these factors have been under intense scrutiny in HIV and, to a lesser extent, in HCV infection. T cells that are able to recognize the same peptide bound to major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) vary in their sensitivity for antigen by several orders of magnitude [6,7] and it has been shown in both murine models and human infection that CD8+ CTLs that are able to recognize very low antigen densities are most MK-8669 efficient at eliminating viruses [6,8–10]. A number of factors contribute to the sensitivity of the CTL response. On the T cell side this is determined in large part by T cell receptor (TCR) affinity, but also the level of TCR expression, TCR valency CD8 expression and expression of accessory molecules on the CTL clones comprising a polyclonal response. On the antigen-presenting cell or infected target cell, a major contributor to the ability of T cells to recognize low levels of antigen is the processing

and binding of peptide to MHC class I (MHCI). T cell sensitivity has been referred to in the literature as ‘functional avidity’. However, there are recent data to suggest that sensitivity is not an entirely fixed property and sensitivity SAHA HDAC ic50 can be fine-tuned in response to other factors such as cytokines and antigen level [11]. We therefore propose the use of the term ‘functional sensitivity’ in place

of ‘functional avidity’, as it is usually the sensitivity (which is determined by all of the above) rather than the actual avidity of the interaction that has been measured. In principle, increased functional sensitivity by definition allows T cells to recognize lower levels of peptide and thus target cells early in infection, or overcome immune evasion mechanisms such as down-regulation of MHCI. Because responses to different peptides, different HLA alleles or in different individuals might comprise Protirelin cells bearing different T cell receptors, it is plausible that such variation may contribute to the efficacy of T cell responses. Induction of functional, long-lived CD8+ T cell responses requires interaction with a professional antigen-presenting cell, its co-stimulatory molecules and help from CD4+ T cells. Once primed, CTL effector function is activated upon engagement between the T cell receptor (TCR) and cognate pMHCI [12], expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. On interaction of a TCR with its cognate pMHCI there is ultimately a formal assembly of these molecules with the formation of an immunological synapse.

021) Numerically, more control patients required norepinephrine

021). Numerically, more control patients required norepinephrine ≥ 0.11 μg×kg-1 ×min-1 (50% vs. 19%, P=0.063) and dobutamine (50% vs. 25%, P=0.14). Therefore, administration

of reparixin in CABG patients appears feasible and safe. It concurrently attenuated postoperative granulocytosis in peripheral blood. “
“More than 1·5 billion people are at risk of being infected with filarial nematodes worldwide. Therapy and control of transmission are mainly based on mass drug distribution. As these drugs have to be administered annually or biannually this website and might be loosing their efficacy, a vaccine against filariae is an alternative approach to chemotherapy. In the current study, we have analysed the potential of Brugia malayi heat shock protein 70 (BmHsp70) as a vaccine candidate in a murine helminth infection. Immunization of BALB/c mice with alum-precipitated recombinant BmHsp70 conferred partial protection against subsequent challenge infection with Wnt cancer the rodent parasite Litomosoides sigmodontis. Immunization resulted in reduced numbers of larvae in the pleural cavity as well as reduced numbers of circulating microfilariae. Reduced parasite burden was associated with high titres of BmHsp70-specific antibodies

and increased production of type I and II cytokines in response to L. sigmodontis antigen and BmHsp70. In summary, the immunization with BmHsp70 induced cellular and humoral immune responses and partially protected against Dapagliflozin L. sigmodontis in a challenge infection. Therefore, we hypothesize that BmHsp70 might be considered as a potential vaccine candidate for reduction in the incidence of B. malayi infections in future studies. “
“One of the most promising approaches in the efforts to produce a malaria vaccine involves the use of attenuated whole sporozoite immunizations. Attenuation may be achieved by the use of genetic modification, irradiation, chemical attenuation, or by the contemporaneous administration of antimalarial drugs that target only the erythrocytic

stages of the parasite. Most research to date has focused on the efficacy of these approaches upon challenge with parasites homologous to those used for the initial immunizations. We, as have others, have previously shown that a component of the immunity achieved against the erythrocytic stages of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi is strain-specific, with a stronger immune response targeting the immunizing strain than genetically distinct strains. Here, we show that the immunity induced by infection with the pre-erythrocytic stages of these parasites, achieved via inoculation of sporozoites contemporaneously with mefloquine, also has a strain-specific component.