8) in all plant types (Fig. 1c). selleck chemical Fig. 1 Fungal
diversity indices: a. Number of distinct OTUs isolated per plant; b. Number of distinct OTUs isolated per plant for each plant type (1. asymptomatic, 2. esca-symptomatic, 3. nursery); c. Simpson index estimated for each plant type based on the relative frequencies of the OTUs in the plants (1. asymptomatic, 2. esca-symptomatic, 3. nursery) Species accumulation curves (Fig. 2) used incidence data (presence or absence of an OTU in a plant) instead of abundance data (number of isolates of an OTU in a plant) to take in account the sampling bias between nursery and adult plants (see Materials and methods section). We were aware that such procedure gave more importance to rarely isolated OTUs than it did for the frequently isolated ones. None of the estimated species accumulation curves for asymptomatic, esca-symptomatic and nursery plants showed any sign of leveling off (Fig. 2), indicating that more sampling effort is required to fully selleck compound characterize the mycota associated to each plant type. Fig. 2 Species accumulation curves for each plant type. a. Asymptomatic plants; b. Esca-symptomatic
plants; c. Nursery plants. Standard deviations for each sampling effort were calculated based on 10,000 resamplings None of the presumed esca-associated fungi were significantly more invasive in symptomatic plants compared to asymptomatic plants BCKDHB Among the 150 identified OTUs, 23 OTUs SRT2104 molecular weight are generally regarded as being associated with the esca and/or young vine decline grapevine trunk diseases: Eutypa lata, Fomitiporia mediterranea,
Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, Stereum rugosum, anamorphs of the genus Botryosphaeria (Diplodia seriata, Fusicoccum aesculi, Neofusicoccum parvum), Cadophora spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., Phaeoacremonium spp., and Phomopsis spp. (Online Resource 2, Table 1). Only 11 of the 180 plants analyzed (6.1 %) were found to be free from esca and young vine decline associated fungi (asymptomatic: 4, esca-symptomatic: 3, and nursery: 4). When comparing symptomatic and asymptomatic plants in the Chasselas vineyard, with the exception of basidiomycetes both plant types hosted esca-associated species with medium to high incidence (Fig. 3). Four trunk disease associated fungal species or genera had similar medium to high incidence in adult plants: P. chlamydospora (asymptomatic: 43.5 %, esca-symptomatic: 42.1 %), Phaeoacremonium spp. (30.4 %, 28.9 %), E. lata (27.5 %, 28.9 %) and Cadophora (17.4 %, 13.2 %). Botryosphaeria anamorphs were more frequently isolated from esca symptomatic plants (50 %) than from asymptomatic ones (36.2 %). The same pattern was observed for Phomopsis spp. (esca-symptomatic: 26.3 %, asymptomatic: 17.4 %). The genus Cylindrocarpon was absent from adult plants. Fig. 3 Incidence of wood disease associated fungi in each plant type.