“The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) i

“The pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is poorly understood and the mechanisms are still being elucidated. Mitochondrial dysfunction participates at different levels in NASH pathogenesis since it impairs fatty liver homeostasis and induces overproduction of free radicals that in turn trigger lipid peroxidation and cell death. In this article, CT99021 in vivo we review the role of mitochondria

in fat metabolism, energy homeostasis and reactive oxygen species production, with a focus on the role of mitochondrial impairment and uncoupling proteins in the pathophysiology of NASH progression. The potential effects of some molecules targeted to mitochondria are also discussed.”
“Mental representation and transformation of spatial information is often examined with mental rotation (MR) tasks, which require deciding whether a rotated image is the same as or the mirror version of an upright image. Recent research with infants shows early discrimination of objects from mirror-image versions. However, even at the age of 4 years, many

children perform at near chance level on more standard measures. Similar age discrepancies can be observed in other domains, including perspective taking, theory of mind, and intuitive physics. These paradoxical results raise the questions of how performance relates to competence and how to conceptualize developmental change. There may be a common underlying mechanism: the development of the ability to imagine things and mentally transform them in a prospective fashion.”
“To synthesize and selleck screening library characterize a novel metal complex of Mn (II) with emodin, and evaluate its anti-cancer activity. The elemental analyses, SYN-117 inhibitor IR, UV-vis, atomic absorption spectroscopy, TG-DSC, (HNNIR)-H-1, and C-13 NMR data were used to characterize the structure of the complex. The cytotoxicity of the complex against the human cancer cell lines HepG2, HeLa, MCF-7, B16, and MDA-MB-231 was tested by the MTT assay and flow cytometry. Emodin was coordinated with

Mn(II) through the 9-C=O and 1-OH, and the general formula of the complex was Mn(II) (emodin)(2)center dot 2H(2)O. In studies of the cytotoxicity, the complex exhibited significant activity, and the IC50 values of the complex against five cancer cell lines improved approximately three-fold compared with those of emodin. The complex could induce cell morphological changes, decrease the percentage of viability, and induce G(0)/G(1) phase arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. The coordination of emodin with Mn(II) can improve its anticancer activity, and the complex Mn(II) (emodin)(2)center dot 2H(2)O could be studied further as a promising anticancer drug.”
“Prognostic models are generally used to predict gastric cancer outcomes.

Each slice was placed in either normal artificial cerebrospinal f

Each slice was placed in either normal artificial cerebrospinal fluid or magnesium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid; the latter induces seizure-like electrical behaviour. A total of 74 samples of cortex of approximate size 2 mm x 2 mm were then cut from these slices.

Each sample in turn was placed between two flat Ag/AgCl electrodes and electrical impedance measured with an Agilent E4980A four-point impedance monitor. The measurements showed two regions of significant dispersion. Circuits based on the Cole-Cole and Fricke models, consisting of inductive, nonlinear capacitive and resistive elements were used to model the behaviour. Distributions of values for each circuit element have been determined for FK506 datasheet the samples prepared in seizing and non-seizing conditions. Few differences were found between the values of circuit elements between the seizing and non-seizing groups.”
“The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of shigellosis, a diarrhoeal disease also

known as bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri infects the colonic and rectal epithelia of its primate host and induces a cascade of inflammatory responses that culminates in the destruction of the host intestinal lining. Molecular characterization of host-pathogen interactions in this infection has been challenging due to the host specificity of S. flexneri strains, as it strictly infects humans and non-human primates. Recent studies have shown that S. flexneri infects buy GSK1838705A the soil dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, however, the interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans at the cellular level and the cause of nematode death are unknown. S3I-201 ic50 Here we attempt to gain insight into the complex host-pathogen interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans. Using transmission electron microscopy, we show that live S. flexneri cells accumulate in the nematode intestinal lumen, produce outer membrane vesicles and invade nematode intestinal cells. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis we identified host proteins that are differentially expressed in response

to S. flexneri infection. Four of the identified genes, aco-1, cct-2, daf-19 and hsp-60, were knocked down using RNAi and ACO-1, CCT-2 and DAF-19, which were identified as up-regulated in response to S. flexneri infection, were found to be involved in the infection process. aco-1 RNAi worms were more resistant to S. flexneri infection, suggesting S. flexneri-mediated disruption of host iron homeostasis. cct-2 and daf-19 RNAi worms were more susceptible to infection, suggesting that these genes are induced as a protective mechanism by C. elegans. These observations further our understanding of the processes involved in S. flexneri infection of C. elegans, which is immensely beneficial to the routine use of this new in vivo model to study S. flexneri pathogenesis.

RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminati

RESULTS: Using data from the entire cohort, the most discriminative cut-off values of AMC and ALC selected on the receiver operating characteristic curve were 672.4/mu L and 1734/mu L for DFS and OS. AMLPS risk groups included selleckchem 158 (52.8%) patients in the low-risk, 128 (42.8%) in the intermediate-risk, and 13 (4.3%) in the high-risk group. With a median follow-up of 37.2 mo (range: 1.7-91.4 mo), five-year DFS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 83.4%, 78.7%, and 19.8%, respectively. And five-year OS rates in the low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups were 89.3%, 81.1%,

and 14.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis performed with patient-and tumor-related factors, we identified AMLPS, age, and pathologic tumor-node-metastasis stage as the most valuable prognostic factors impacting DFS Selleckchem NU7441 and OS. CONCLUSION: AMLPS identified patients with a poor DFS and OS, and it was independent of age, pathologic stage, and various inflammatory markers.”
“ZnuA is the soluble component of the high-affinity

ZnuABC zinc transporter belonging to the ATP-binding cassette-type periplasmic Zn-binding proteins. The zinc transporter ZnuABC is composed by three proteins: ZnuB, the membrane permease, ZnuC, the ATPase component and ZnuA, the soluble periplasmic metal-binding protein which captures Zn and delivers it to ZnuB.\n\nThe ZnuA protein contains a charged flexible loop, rich in histidines and acidic residues, showing significant species-specific differences. Various studies have established that this loop contributes to the formation of a secondary zinc binding site, which has been proposed to be important in the acquisition of periplasmic Zn for its delivery to ZnuB or for regulation of zinc uptake. Due to its high mobility the structure of the histidine-rich loop has never been solved by X-ray diffraction studies. In this paper, Salubrinal through a combined use of molecular modeling, mutagenesis and fluorescence spectroscopy, we confirm the presence of two zinc binding sites characterized by different affinities

for the metal ion and show that the flexibility of the loop is modulated by the binding of the zinc ions to the protein. The data obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy have then be used to validate a 3D model including the unsolved histidine-rich loop. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In a previous paper we showed that bradykinin (BK), interacting with its B(2) receptor, inhibits proximal tubule Na(+-)ATPase activity but does not change (Na(+) + K(+))ATPase activity. The aim of this paper was to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in B(2)-mediated modulation of proximal tubule Na(+)-ATPase by BK. To abolish B(1) receptor-mediated effects, all experiments were carried out in the presence of (Arg-Pro-ProGly-Phe-Ser-Pro-Leu), des-Arg(9)-[Leu(8)]-BK (DALBK), a specific antagonist of B(1) receptor.

A sucrose gradient fractionation experiment revealed that both Ak

A sucrose gradient fractionation experiment revealed that both Akt and Phafin2 co-existed in the same lysosome enriched fraction after autophagy induction. Omipalisib nmr Confocal microscopic analysis and BiFC analysis demonstrated that both Akt and Phafin2 accumulate

in the lysosome after induction of autophagy. BiFC analysis using PtdIns (3) P interaction defective mutant of Phafin2 demonstrated that lysosomal accumulation of the Akt-Phafin2 complex and subsequent induction of autophagy were lysosomal PtdIns (3) P dependent events. Furthermore, in murine macrophages, both Akt and Phafin2 were required for digestion of fluorescent bacteria and/or LPS-induced autophagy. Taken together, these findings establish that lysosomal accumulation of Akt and Phafin2 is a critical step in the induction of autophagy via an interaction with PtdIns (3)P.”
“Several new TOP1-targeting agents were prepared using as intermediates the N,N,N-trimethyl quaternary ammonium salts of either ARC-111 or its 12-aza analog (ARC-31), 3 and 4, respectively. Direct displacement of the quaternary ammonium group with water, imidazole, alkylethylenediamines, or polyhydroxylated alkylamines provides a convenient means for furthering the structure-activity relationships associated with these non-camptothecin

TOP1-targeting agents. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) is a reliable marker of myocardial injury PLX3397 concentration and was recently identified as a predictor of outcome in acute pulmonary embolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of H-FABP in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

(CTEPH).\n\nIn total, 93 consecutive patients with CTEPH were studied. During long-term follow-up (median duration 1,260 days, interquartile range (IQR) 708-2,460 days), 46 (49%) patients had an adverse outcome, defined as CTEPH-related death, lung Selleck EPZ 6438 transplantation or persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA).\n\nBaseline H-FABP levels in plasma ranged from 0.69-24.3 ng.mL(-1) (median (IQR) 3.41 (2.28-4.86) ng.mL(-1)) Cox regression analysis revealed a hazard ratio of 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.18) for each increase of H-FABP by 1 ng.mL(-1), and continuous elevations of H-FABP emerged as an independent predictor of adverse outcome by multivariable analysis. PEA was performed in 52 patients and favourably affected the long-term outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that patients with baseline H-FABP concentrations > 2.7 ng.mL(-1), the median value of the biomarker in the surgically treated population, had a lower probability of event-free survival after PEA.

“In this paper, we study the non-isentropic compressible m

“In this paper, we study the non-isentropic compressible magnetohydrodynamic system with a time periodic external force in Under the condition that the optimal time decay rates are obtained by spectral analysis, we show that the existence, uniqueness and time-asymptotic stability of time periodic solutions when the space dimension n bigger than = 5. Our Bromosporine purchase proof is based on a combination of the energy method and the contraction mapping theorem.”
“Amphiphilic acrylic copolymers with hexamethyleneamine and poly(ethylene glycol) side chains can show bigger than 100-fold selectivity

toward Escherichia coli over red blood cells. Homopolymer with cationic pendant amine groups is highly hemolytic and antibacterial. Incorporation of approximately 33 mol % of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) led to 1300 times reduction in hemolytic activity, while maintaining high levels of antibacterial activity. The hemolytic activity of these PEGylated copolymers depends on the overall content and spatial distribution of the PEGMA units. Higher activity against Escherichia coli than Staphylococcus aureus was observed for this polymer system, likely due to hydrogen bonding

ability of the PEG side chains with polysaccharide cell wall of the bacteria. Field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis confirmed the bacterial membrane rupture activity exerted by these copolymers, whereas time-kill studies revealed significantly different bactericidal kinetics toward the Gram-negative Escherichia Selleck Rabusertib coli and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus.”
“In this study, two novel flavan derivatives,

namely, rhusjavanins A and B, along with two known flavans 2,3-trans-3,4-trans-3,4,7,4′-tetrahydroxyflavan and 2,3-trans-3,4-cis-3,4,7,4′-tetrahydroxyflavan, have been isolated from the roots of Rhus javanica. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data.”
“The effects of wall charge on firing voltage, V(f), and the statistical delay time of discharge, t(s), in plasma display panels were investigated. V(f), i.e., the ion-induced secondary electron emission, is independent of both the polarity and amount of wall charge. In contrast, t(s), i.e., the exoelectron emission, strongly depends MI-503 on the wall charge and is smaller for a high positive wall charge, revealing the coexistence of trapped electrons and holes in the surface region. Positive charging of the MgO surface of the cathode side is effective to improve the response of the address discharge. (C) 2010 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“People’s affective or emotional state can alter their cognitive processing, biasing interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. Those in a more positive state interpret such stimuli in a more optimistic manner than those in a negative state.

This suggests

This suggests learn more that rumination and loss avoidance are closely associated. A potential clinical implication is that rumination and grief complications after bereavement may be reduced through the use of exposure and acceptance-based therapeutic techniques.”
“Organ transplantation has often been successful for treatment of end-stage organ failure. However, the shortage of donor organ still remains problematic

in clinical practices. As an alternative, the tissue-engineering approach for functional organ replacement has been extensively studied. More recently, decellularized organs have been emerged as a promising scaffold for reconstruction of the complicated organs (e.g., heart, liver, lung and kidney). The ideal decellularized organ scaffolds need to contain extracellular matrix (ECM), bioactive molecules, vascular systems and tissue microarchitecture. To fulfill these CH5183284 concentration requirements, physical, chemical, and biological techniques have been adapted in the process of organ decellularization. In this review, the representative techniques for the organ decellularization and their characterization as well as considerations for implantation are discussed.”
“In order

to assess the role of nitric oxide/cyclicGMP signaling pathway in the anticonvulsant effect of benzodiazepines, we studied the potential interaction of a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil with the effect of diazepam on a mouse model of clonic seizures induced by intravenous infusion of GABA antagonist, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). Administration of sildenafil (10 mg/kg;

per se effective on seizure threshold) could abolish the anticonvulsive effect of diazepam, and a subeffective dose (5 mg/kg), when added to NO precursor L-arginine (50 mg/kg) could cause the same effect Conversely, subeffective SNX-5422 doses of diazepam (0.02 mg/kg) and NO synthase inhibitor N (omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5 mg/kg), administered together, reversed the proconvulsive effect of sildenafil. Our findings indicate that the enhancement of NO/cGMP signaling pathway by sildenafil attenuates the anticonvulsant effect of the benzodiazepine prototype, diazepam This suggests that the effects of facilitating GABA(A)-mediated inhibition and modulating NO pathways are additive and there might be a role for NO pathway in benzodiazepine effect against FE-induced seizures in mice. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background The p16(INK4A) protein (p16) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that arrests the cell cycle in the G1 phase.\n\nAim To explore the potential of p16 as a predictive marker for lymph node (LN) metastasis and prognosis in cervical carcinomas.\n\nMethods 145 patients diagnosed with FIGO stage I to IV cervical carcinoma were studied; 95 underwent LN dissection. The expression of p16 protein was studied by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays.\n\nResults Overexpression of p16 was seen in 108 of 145 (74.5%) invasive carcinomas.

There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated pla

There is an urgent need to establish a nationally coordinated plan for surveillance of data collection, use, access and dissemination, with defined institutional roles for each of these functions and and the funds dedicated to the research.”
“In humans, microsomal epoxide hydrolase Fludarabine concentration (mEH) contributes important biological

functions that underlie both detoxification and bioactivation fates arising from exposures to foreign chemicals. Previously, we discovered that human mEH gene transcription is initiated from alternative promoters. The respective transcripts are programmed with tissue specificity and the upstream E1b promoter contributes predominantly to mEH expression. The results presented demonstrate that exposures to the Nrf2 activators, sulforaphane (SFN) and tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), markedly activate Bib transcription in human lung and liver cells. Genomic analyses identified two major DNase I hypersensitive regions (HS-1 and HS-2) within the similar to 15 kb intervening sequence separating E1b from the downstream E1 promoter. In BEAS-2B cells, the Nrf2 effectors, SFN and tBHQ selectively activated the more distal HS-2 through an

antioxidant response element (ARE). An activator protein 1/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate interaction was further identified within the HS-2 enhancer that functioned to additionally contribute to ARE-mediated induction responsiveness of the E1b promoter. selleck kinase inhibitor The results demonstrate that ARE modulation, integrated with additional transcriptional complexes, regulates the

tissue-specific expression of mEH and that these S63845 processes likely coordinate both the protective and bioactivation functions contributed by mEH activities in human tissues. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Background: Endothelial dysfunction is an early event of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and can occur before albuminuria. Oxidative stress has been found to play a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, we hypothesized that increases in plasma advanced oxidized protein products (AOPPs), a family of oxidized, dityrosine-containing protein compounds generated during oxidative stress, could serve as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction in T2D patients without albuminuria. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 147 newly diagnosed T2D patients (112 without albuminuria and 35 with albuminuria) and 49 age-matched healthy control subjects. Flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) was used to assess endothelium-dependent vasodilator function, and plasma soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) concentrations were determined to evaluate vascular injury. Plasma AOPPs concentrations were measured using a modified spectrophotometric assay.

This prospective study included 60 healthy children (newborn to 1

This prospective study included 60 healthy children (newborn to 14 y) divided

into four age groups. One thousand two hundred ARFI measurements QNZ were performed, that is, 20 measurements per patient (5 measurements in each lobe, with each probe). Means, standard deviations (SD) and confidence intervals for velocity were calculated for each hepatic lobe and each probe in each age group and for the whole group. Mean shear wave velocity measured in the right lobe was 1.19 +/- 0.04 m/s (SD = 5 0.13) with the 4 C1 transducer and 1.15 +/- 0.04 m/s (SD = 5 0.15) with the 9 L4 transducer. Age had a small effect on shear wave measurements. Body mass index and sex had no significant effects on ARFI values, whereas site of measurement had a significant effect, with lower ARFI values in the right hepatic lobe. ARFI VX-809 research buy is a non-invasive technique that is feasible to perform in children with both the 4 C1 and 9 L4 probes. The aforementioned velocity values obtained in the right lobe may be used as reference values for normal liver stiffness in children. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.”
“Scientists have carried

out research for various biomimetic applications based on the dragonfly wings because of the superb flying skills and lightsome posture. The wings of dragonflies are mainly composed of veins and membranes, which give rise to the special characteristics of their wings that make dragonflies being supremely versatile, maneuverable fliers. Mimicking the dragonfly wing motion

is of great technological interest from application’s point of view. However, the major challenge is the biomimetic fabrication to replicate the wing motion due to the very complex nature of the wing venation of dragonfly wings. In this regard, the topology optimization method (TOM) is useful to simplify object’s structure while retaining its mechanical properties. In this paper, TOM is employed to simplify and optimize the venation structure of dragonfly (Pantala flavescens Fabricius) wing that is captured www.selleckchem.com/products/Staurosporine.html by a 3D scanner and numerical reconfiguration. Combined with the material parameters obtained from nanoindentation testing, the quantitative models are established based on a finite element (FE) analysis and discussed in static range. The quantitative models are then compared with the square frame, staggered grid frame and hexagonal frame to examine the potentials of the biomimetic structure design for the fabrication of greenhouse roof.”
“It is well established that sexually dimorphic neural regions are organized by steroid hormones during development. In many species, neonatal males are exposed to more testosterone than their female littermates, and ultimately it is the estradiol, produced by aromatization of testosterone, that affects sexual differentiation. However, the androgen receptor also plays an important role in the masculinization of brain and behavior.

Contact angle measurements and XPS analysis confirmed the binding

Contact angle measurements and XPS analysis confirmed the binding. Quantification was determined by radioactivity

using heparin labeled with tritium. The surface exhibited anti factor Xa activity, thus confirming the presence of bounded heparin that kept some biological activity. Finally platelets adhesion showed less platelet adhesion on heparin modified films as well as preserved morphology. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 98A: 80-87, 2011.”
“Nucleotide distributions in genomes is known not to be random, showing the presence of specific motifs, long and short range correlations, periodicities, etc. Particularly, motifs are critical for the recognition by specific proteins affecting chromosome organization, transcription and DNA replication but little is known about the possible functional effects of nucleotide distributions selleck kinase inhibitor on the conformational landscape of DNA, putatively leading to differential selective pressures

throughout evolution. Promoter sequences have a fundamental role in the regulation of gene activity and a vast literature suggests that their conformational landscapes may be a critical factor in gene expression dynamics. On these grounds, with the aim of investigating the putative existence of phylogenetic patterns of promoter base distributions, we analyzed GC/AT ratios along the 1000 nucleotide sequences upstream of TSS in wide sets of promoters belonging to organisms ranging from bacteria

to pluricellular Cell Cycle inhibitor eukaryotes. The data obtained showed very clear phylogenetic trends throughout evolution of promoter sequence base distributions. Particularly, in all cases either GC-rich or AT-rich monotone gradients were observed: the former being present in eukaryotes, the latter in bacteria along with strand biases. Moreover, within eukaryotes. GC-rich gradients increased CA4P in length from unicellular organisms to plants, to vertebrates and, within them, from ancestral to more recent species. Finally, results were thoroughly discussed with particular attention to the possible correlation between nucleotide distribution patterns, evolution, and the putative existence of differential selection pressures, deriving from structural and/or functional constraints, between and within prokaryotes and eukaryotes. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“We have previously shown that resting energy expenditure (REE) adjusted by fat-free mass (FFM) in male college athletes remains consistent regardless of FFM. The FFM comprises internal organs with high metabolic activity, such as liver and brain, which account for 60 to 80% of REE in adults. The purpose of the present study is to examine the contribution of internal organs to the REE of the FFM fraction among male power athletes. The study included 37 American male college football players.

Methods: A prospective, consecutive and comparative trial was

\n\nMethods: A prospective, consecutive and comparative trial was conducted in 75 patients who underwent elective pulmonary resection for non small cell lung cancer.

This study compared two digitals devices with the current analogue version in 75 patients. The digital and analogue groups had 26, 24, and 25 patients, respectively.\n\nResults: Clinical population data were not statistically different between the groups. The withdrawal of the chest tube was Thopaz, 2.4 LDK378 molecular weight days; Digivent, 3.3 days and PleurEvac, 4.5days. Patients and nurses were subjectively more comfortable with digital devices. Surgeons obtained more objective information with digital devices. The safety mechanism

of the Thopaz was also subjectively better, and one patient was discharged home without complications after one week.\n\nConclusions: The digital and continuous measurement of air leak instead of the currently used static analogue systems reduced the chest tube withdrawal and hospital stay by more accurately and reproducibly measuring air leak. Intrapleural pressure curves from the Digivent may also help predict the optimal chest tube setting for each patient. The Thopaz alarm mechanism is very useful to prevent deficiencies in the mechanism and do not required wall suction. (C) 2010 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana, S.L. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives To assess contraceptive see more knowledge, use of emergency contraception (EC) and the

motives of women seeking induced abortion.\n\nMethods A descriptive and cross-sectional study conducted at the T. C. Izmir Dr. Hayri Ekrem Ustundag Gynaecology and Maternity Hospital and the Izmir Ataturk Research and Teaching Hospital, Turkey. The research sample consisted of 440 women who requested an abortion between January and May 2010, and voluntarily agreed to participate.\n\nResults Sixty-two percent of the women became pregnant while using family planning (FP) methods. The contraceptive used by 42%% was the condom, and 45%% believed that they had become pregnant because of improper use of the contraceptive. Ninety-three percent had never used EC. Thirty-seven percent Dinaciclib order wanted their pregnancy terminated because they did not want another child, whereas 26%% viewed induced abortion as a method of FP. Sixty-nine percent of the women received FP counselling from health professionals, and 80%% found the information provided adequate.\n\nConclusion The women assessed were insufficiently knowledgeable about FP in general and EC in particular. Many had become pregnant as a result of inaccurate information.”
“Chemical allergens bind directly, or after metabolic or abiotic activation, to endogenous proteins to become allergenic.