The obtained data show that salivary glands present an unexpected

The obtained data show that salivary glands present an unexpected source of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides which with their autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine mechanisms BMS-345541 purchase of action may participate in the control of salivary gland function. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2012, Vol. 50, No. 4, 504-512)”
“Transparent Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped new glass ceramics (GC) containing beta-Zn2SiO4 nanocrystals were prepared under a reduced atmosphere. The optical properties of these samples have been investigated. The emission spectra of Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped glass ceramics show two broadband peakings at 458 and 560 nm under ultraviolet radiation, which can be attributed to 4f(6)5d(1)->

4f(7) transition of Eu2+ and T-4(1)((4)G)->(6)A(1)(S-6) transition of Mn2+, respectively. Energy transfer (ET) from Eu2+ to Mn2+ is discovered by directly observing significant overlap of the excitation spectrum of Mn2+ and the emission spectrum of Eu2+. ET from Eu2+ to Mn2+ in

glass ceramics is further confirmed by fluorescence studies performed Selleck TGF-beta inhibitor on the samples with various activator (Mn2+) concentrations. The optimal composition generates white light with chromaticity coordinates (0.291, 0.344). The results indicate that Eu2+/Mn2+ co-doped glass ceramics is potential material for white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Crown Copyright (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“When included as part of a larger greenhouse check details gas (GHG) emissions reduction program, forest offsets may provide low-cost opportunities for GHG mitigation. One barrier to including forest offsets in climate policy is the risk of reversal, the intentional or unintentional release of carbon back to the atmosphere due to storms, fire, pests, land use decisions, and many other factors. To address this shortcoming, a variety of different strategies have emerged to minimize either the risk or the financial and environmental implications of reversal. These

strategies range from management decisions made at the individual stand level to buffers and set-asides that function across entire trading programs. For such strategies to work, the actual risk and magnitude of potential reversals need to be clearly understood. In this paper we examine three factors that are likely to influence reversal risk: natural disturbances (such as storms, fire, and insect outbreaks), climate change, and landowner behavior. Although increases in atmospheric CO(2) and to a lesser extent warming will likely bring benefits to some forest ecosystems, temperature stress may result in others. Furthermore, optimism based on experimental results of physiology and growth must be tempered with knowledge that future large-scale disturbances and extreme weather events are also likely to increase.

The effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone, on ACTH, co

The effect of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist, buspirone, on ACTH, cortisol, and prolactine (PRL) plasma levels was used to assess the functional

status of hypothalamic 5-HT1A receptors. A group of 15 concurrent normal subjects were used as control.\n\nResults: Endogenous depressed patients in remission and currently receiving treatment with imipramine (mean length of treatment 145 days, SD = 27) presented significantly lower buspirone responses to ACTH and cortisol JQ1 clinical trial than in the pre-treatment condition (Delta max p <= .05; AUCp < .001) and to ACTH in comparison with healthy controls (Delta max p < .01; AUC p < .05). No significant differences were found between the post-treatment and pre-treatment PRL responses, or between patients in both conditions and controls; nevertheless, the PRL response in patients in remission and receiving

treatment almost reached the values seen in controls.\n\nConclusions: This study extends previous findings from our group using the SSRI citalopram as an antidepressant. Imipramine and citalopram induce similar changes in the endocrine response to buspirone in depressed patients. As the direction of change in ACTH cortisol and PRL responses after treatment is the opposite, we cannot this website substantiate increases or decreases in the sensitivity of post-synaptic 5-HT1A receptors in the hypothalamus by long-term imipramine treatment and/or resolution of illness. Therefore, the hormonal changes may result from different or multiples unknown mechanisms. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Measles virus remains a substantial check details cause of morbidity and mortality, producing acute infection with a potential for development of viral persistence. To study the events underlying

acute and persistent measles virus infection, we performed a global transcriptional analysis on murine neuroblastoma cells that were acutely or persistently infected with measles virus. In general, we found that acute infection induced significantly more gene expression changes than did persistent infection. A functional enrichment analysis to identify which host pathways were perturbed during each of these infections identified several pathways related to cholesterol biosynthesis, including cholesterol metabolic processes, hydroxymethyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase activity, and acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase activity. We also found that measles virus colocalized to lipid rafts in both acute and persistent infection models and that the majority of genes associated with cholesterol synthesis were downregulated in persistent infection relative to acute infection, suggesting a possible link with the defective viral budding in persistent infection.

Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiti

Thus, hepatocyte-derived LCN2 plays an important role in inhibiting

bacterial infection and promoting liver regeneration. (Hepatology 2015;61:692-702)”
“Localization is a fundamental challenge for any network of nodes, in particular when the nodes are in motion and no reference nodes are available. Traditionally, the Multidimensional scaling (MDS) algorithm is employed at discrete time instances using pairwise distance measurements to find the relative node positions (with arbitrary rotation). In this paper, we present a novel framework to localize an anchorless network of mobile nodes given only time-varying inter-nodal distances. The time derivatives of the pairwise distances are used to jointly estimate the initial relative position

and relative velocity of the nodes. Under linear velocity assumption for a small time duration, we show that the combination of the initial relative positions and relative velocity beget click here the relative motion of the HIF inhibitor nodes at discrete time instances. The proposed approach can be seen as an extension of the classical MDS, wherein Doppler measurements, if available, can be readily incorporated. We derive Cramer Rao bounds and perform simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimators. Furthermore, the computational complexity and the benefits of the proposed algorithms are also presented. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Molecular studies of six species from the ancient

extant seed plant Cycas, covering a wide range of its morphological diversity and all major areas of distribution, revealed a high level of intra-individual polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1, 5.8S, and ITS2) region, indicative of incomplete nrDNA concerted evolution. Through a range of comparisons of sequence characteristics to functional cDNA ITS copies, including sequence length and substitution variation, GC content, secondary structure stability, the presence of a conserved motif in the 5.8S gene, and evolutionary rates, the PCR amplified divergent genomic DNA ITS paralogs were identified as either putative pseudogenes, recombinants or functional paralogs. This incomplete ITS concerted evolution may be linked to the high number of nucleolar organizer regions in Compound Library cell line the Cycas genome, and the incomplete lineage sorting due to recent species divergence in the genus. Based on the distribution of a 14 bp deletion, an early evolutionary origin of the pseudogenes is indicated, possibly predating the diversification of Cycas. Due to their early origin combined with the unconstraint evolution of the ITS region in pseudogenes, they accumulate high levels of homoplastic mutations. This leads to random relationships among the pseudogenes due to long-branch attractions, whereas the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the functional ITS paralogs grouped the sequences in species specific clades (except for C. circinalis and C rumphii).

0 test by self-report and proxy report The QoL results in groups

0 test by self-report and proxy report. The QoL results in groups 2 and 3 were compared with age-matched

controls. ResultsMothers in groups 1 and 3 were more anxious than were those in group 2. Adolescents in group 3 had poorer QoL compared with controls by self- and proxy reports. A significant difference was observed in QoL between the children who did and those who did not soil. The anxiety level was significantly lower in parents who attended more than one meeting. ConclusionsHigh anxiety and poor QoL levels in adolescence may have been related to the growing importance of body image. The higher anxiety levels of mothers in group 1 could be explained by an encounter with a baby STA-9090 who was different from the imagined baby and the newness of illness. QoL may have been perceived as being worse than what it was for psychological reasons.”
“Connexin 43 knockout (Cx43 KO) mice exhibit conotruncal malformations and coronary artery defects. We observed epicardial blisters in the Cx43 KO hearts that suggest defects in epicardial epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT), a process that generates coronary vascular progenitors. Analysis using a three-dimensional collagen gel invasion assay showed that Cx43 KO epicardial cells are less invasive and that, unlike wild-type epicardial cells, they fail to

organize VX-689 cell line into thin vessel-like projections. Examination of Cx43 KO hearts using Wt1 as an epicardial marker revealed a disorganized pattern of epicardial cell infiltration. Time-lapse imaging and motion analysis using epicardial explants showed a defect in directional cell migration. This was associated with changes in the actin/tubulin cytoskeleton. A defect in cell polarity was indicated by a failure of the microtubule-organizing center to align with the direction of cell migration. Forced expression of Cx43 constructs

in epicardial explants showed the Cx43 tubulin-binding domain is required for Cx43 modulation of cell polarity and cell motility. ACY-241 Pecam staining revealed early defects in remodeling of the primitive coronary vascular plexuses in the Cx43 KO heart. Together, these findings suggest an early defect in coronary vascular development arising from a global perturbation of the cytoarchitecture of the cell. Consistent with this, we found aberrant myocardialization of the outflow tract, a process also known to be EMT dependent. Together, these findings suggest cardiac defects in the Cx43 KO mice arise from the disruption of cell polarity, a process that may be dependent on Cx43-tubulin interactions.”
“Identification and pharmacological characterization of two new selective delta-opioid receptor antagonists, derived from the Dmt-Tic pharmacophore, of potential utility in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging are described.

Into the N-terminus of Trp-Trp-OBzl, L-amino acids were introduce

Into the N-terminus of Trp-Trp-OBzl, L-amino acids were introduced

and twenty AA-Trp-Trp-OBzls were provided. The automated docking studies showed AA-Trp-Trp-OBzls to be desirable intercalators. The in vitro and in vivo assays explored that thirteen of twenty AA-Trp-Trp-OBzls were anti-tumoral active, and nine of twenty AA-Trp-Trp-OBzls were more active than cytarabine. The acute toxicity, spleen index and increased body weight demonstrated that AA-Trp-Trp-OBzls did not damage the immunologic function of the treated mice and had a LD(50) value of more than 500 mg kg(-1). DNA intercalation was considered the action mechanism of Asn-Trp-Trp-OBzl.”
“Using a comparative analysis of Navajo healing ceremonials, acupuncture and biomedical treatment, Dihydrotestosterone mouse this essay examines placebo studies and ritual theory as mutually interpenetrating disciplines. Healing rituals create a receptive person susceptible to the influences

of authoritative culturally sanctioned ‘powers’. The healer provides the sufferer with imaginative, emotional, sensory, moral and aesthetic input derived from the palpable symbols and procedures of the ritual process-in the process fusing the sufferer’s idiosyncratic narrative unto a universal cultural mythos. Healing rituals involve a drama of evocation, enactment, embodiment and evaluation in a charged atmosphere of hope and uncertainty. Experimental research into placebo effects demonstrates Dorsomorphin in vivo that routine biomedical pharmacological and procedural interventions contain significant ritual dimensions. This research also suggests that ritual healing not only represents changes in affect, self-awareness and self-appraisal of behavioural capacities, but involves modulations of Momelotinib inhibitor symptoms through neurobiological mechanisms. Recent scientific investigations into placebo acupuncture suggest several ways that observations from ritual studies can be verified experimentally. Placebo effects are often described as ‘non-specific’; the analysis presented here suggests that

placebo effects are the ‘specific’ effects of healing rituals.”
“Five new secondary metabolites have been isolated from Chrozophora plicata including an acacetin derivative (1), three pyrrole alkaloids plicatanins A-C (2-4, resp.) and the bilactone plicatanone (5). Together with these compounds, the known compounds, beta-sitosterol (6), methyl p-coumarate (7), 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (8), succinic acid (9), speranberculatine A (10), beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (11) and apigenin-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (12) have also been isolated. The structures of isolates 1-12 were established by 1D (H-1, C-13) and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, COSY) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (EIMS, HREIMS, FABMS, HRFABMS).

The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient

The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation were used to assess the reproducibility of DC measurements made on the healthy subjects. selleck The DC was compared between arterial segments and between the healthy and diseased groups. Furthermore, within the diseased group, DC was correlated to plaque morphology and composition at each location as well as that

averaged over the plaque.\n\nResults: Distensibility measurements were highly reproducible: ICC (95% confidence interval) was 0.998 (0.96-1.0) for the common carotid segment and 0.990 (0.92-1.0) for the internal carotid segment. In healthy volunteers, we found significantly higher distensibility in the common segment of the carotid artery compared to the internal carotid segment (mean +/- SD = 4.56 +/- 1.02 versus 3.56 +/- 1.32 x 10(-5)/Pa; p < 0.05). However, no segmental differences were seen in the diseased group (3.25 +/- 1.84 versus 3.26 +/- 1.60 x 10(-5)/Pa; p = 0.607). Location-to-location changes in DC were not found to correlate to changes in the local plaque morphology or composition nor were average DC found to be associated with aggregate plaque features.\n\nConclusions:

These results demonstrate the feasibility of MRI to measure distensibility in the carotid artery and to presumably detect changes in distensibility due to age and/or disease. The results MK-0518 mouse suggest that the effect of atherosclerosis on local distensibility may not strongly depend upon the specific underlying plaque features in mild to moderate stenotic carotid lesions though more

diffuse or nonlocal changes in arterial distensibility could not be ruled out. (C) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. []“
“Introduction: Most non-small-cell lung cancer tumors with epidermal growth factor receptor mutations are responsive to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib and erlotinib, but almost all such tumors ultimately acquire resistance. We previously found that a gefitinib-resistant cell line, PC-9/Met in which MET (MNNG-HOS transforming gene) is amplified, was more sensitive than its parent cell line (PC-9) to 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38), an active metabolite of irinotecan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the increased sensitivity of the gefitinib-resistant cell line to SN-38.\n\nMethods: The sensitivity of PC-9 and PC-9/Met to SN-38 was assessed by performing water soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assays. Topoisomerase I (topo I) activities were determined for the cell lines cultured in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor and for those of which MET expression was knocked down by introducing a MET-specific small interfering RNA.\n\nResults: PC-9/Met exhibited higher topo I activities, and higher topo I gene and protein expression levels than PC-9 did.

“Full details of the development of a direct coupling of c

“Full details of the development of a direct coupling of catharanthine with vindoline to provide vinblastine are described along with key mechanistic and labeling studies. Following an Fe(III)-promoted coupling reaction initiated by generation of a presumed catharanthine radical cation

that undergoes a subsequent oxidative fragmentation and diastereoselective coupling with vindoline, addition of the resulting reaction mixture to an Fe(III)-NaBH(4)/air solution leads to oxidation of the C15′-C20′ double bond and reduction of the intermediate iminium ion directly providing vinblastine (40-43%) and leurosidine (20-23%), its naturally occurring C20′ alcohol isomer. The yield of coupled products, which exclusively possess the natural C16′ stereochemistry, approaches or exceeds 80% P005091 and the combined yield of the isomeric C20′ alcohols is >60%. Preliminary studies of Fe(III)-NaBH(4)/air oxidation reaction illustrate a generalizable trisubstituted olefin scope, identify alternatives to O(2) trap at the oxidized carbon, provide a unique entry into C20′ functionalized vinblastines, and afford

initial insights into the observed C20′ diastereoselectivity. The first disclosure of the use of exo-catharanthine proceeding through Delta(19′,20′)-anhydrovinblastine in such coupling reactions is also detailed with identical stereochemical consequences. Incorporating selleck kinase inhibitor either a catharanthine N-methyl group or a vindoline N-formyl group precludes Fe(III)-promoted

coupling, whereas the removal of the potentially key C16 methoxy group of vindoline does not adversely impact the coupling efficiency. Extension of these studies provided a total synthesis of vincristine (2) via N-desmethylvinblastine (36, also a natural product), 16-desmethoxyvinblastine (44) and 4-desacetoxy-16-desmethoxyvinblastine (47) both of which we can now suggest are likely natural products produced by C. roseus, desacetylvinblastine (62) and 4-desacetoxyvinblastine learn more (59), as well as a series of key analogues bearing systematic modifications in the vindoline subunit. Their biological evaluation provided additional insights into the key functionality within the vindoline subunit contributing to the activity and sets the foundation on which further, more deep-seated changes in the structures of 1 and 2 will be explored in future studies.”
“Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection and is responsible for 90-99% of cervical cancer (CxCa) cases. Although effective screening programs have reduced the incidence of CxCa in developed countries, they are often not well organized. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV seems to be a good strategy for the prevention of CxCa. However, because millions of women are already infected with HPV, therapeutic HPV vaccines need to be developed further to treat these women. This review discusses the actual perspectives on both HPV vaccines and immunotherapy worldwide.

“The reaction between carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and copper

“The reaction between carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) and copper (II) nitrate produces a new Cu (II) complex with nitrate as the counter anion. TGA, UV, and FTIR analyses confirmed that the coordination number of CDI in this complex is two. The acceleration effect of the complex in epoxy-dicyandiamide (DICY) curing systems has been evaluated

by DSC and TMA, and the increasing viscosity of the mixture was monitored during the storage. The results revealed that the complex is not only very effective for the acceleration of epoxy-DICY systems, leading to a rapid gelation within 21 min at 120 degrees C, but it is also chemically stable at ambient temperature. This is reflected by the slow increase of viscosity of the accelerated curing systems stored at 35 degrees C, even over 56 days. In addition, the effects of the [Cu(CDI)(2)](2+) TH-302 mouse complex with different counter anions, that is, bromide, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, phthalate, and acetate, were compared using a series of tests. By comparing with N,N-dimethyl-N-phenylurea (fenuron), the widely used latent accelerator for DICY-epoxy curing systems, the complexes with bromide and nitride were found to be better, both regarding storage stability and for their acceleration effect. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2013, 51, 3470-3476″
“Background: Tolerance and resistance provide animals with two distinct strategies

to fight infectious pathogens and may exhibit different evolutionary dynamics. However, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in the case of animal diseases under selleck chemicals llc commercial constraints.\n\nMethods: The paper proposes a method to simultaneously describe (1) the dynamics of transmission of a contagious pathogen between animals, (2) the growth and death of the pathogen within infected hosts and (3) the effects on their performances. The effectiveness of increasing individual levels of tolerance and resistance is evaluated by the number of infected animals and the performance at the population level.\n\nResults: The model is applied to a particular set of parameters and different combinations of values. Given these

imputed values, it is shown that higher levels of individual tolerance should see more be more effective than increased levels of resistance in commercial populations. As a practical example, a method is proposed to measure levels of animal tolerance to bovine mastitis.\n\nConclusions: The model provides a general framework and some tools to maximize health and performances of a population under infection. Limits and assumptions of the model are clearly identified so it can be improved for different epidemiological settings.”
“Stresses based on aging and lifestyle can cause tissue damage. Repair of damage by tissue remodeling is often meditated by communications between parenchymal and stromal cells via cell cell contact or humoral factors.

The compatibilization increased the crystallization rate and redu

The compatibilization increased the crystallization rate and reduced the size of the spherulites of PP. On the other hand, it was found that the dispersed vulcanized NBR particles lowered the degree of crystallinity. The better the compatibility of the blend was, the lower the degree of crystallinity and the storage modulus were, but the higher the loss factor and

the processing viscosity were. All TPVs showed almost the same oil resistance, but the TPV prepared with reactive compatibilization had the best mechanical properties. (C) BTSA1 Apoptosis inhibitor 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012″
“We investigate the photoluminescence properties of ZnO nanorods grown by vapor phase epitaxy. The room temperature photoluminescence spectra exhibit an energy shift of about 80 meV to lower energy in comparison with that of bulk ZnO as well as ZnO epilayers. The emission band observed at 3.31 eV at low temperature dominates the photoluminescence at room temperature. The high internal quantum efficiency of about 33% is explained in terms of this band, which seems to result from excitons bound to surface defect states. (C) 2009 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3226071]“
“Background/Aim. Colorectal JQEZ5 Epigenetics inhibitor lymphoma is a rare tumor representing 1.4% of human lymphomas, 10-20% of gastrointestinal lymphomas, namely 0.2-0.6% of all malignancies in the colon. The aim of

this study was to review clinical characteristics of primary colorectal lymphoma and overall survival. Methods. A detailed analysis of 16 surgically treated patients included patients age, symptoms and signs, tumor site, type of surgery, histopathologic findings, diagnosis of the disease, disease stage, type of surgery related to the degree of emergency (elective or urgent), applied adjuvant therapy, patient follow-up and treatment outcomes.

Survival was expressed by the Kaplan-Meier curve, while the difference in survival among the two groups by the Log-rank test. Results. The all patients were on an average followed-up for a Quisinostat manufacturer median of 29 months (range 2-60 months), while those with chemotherapy 48 months (range 4-60 months). An overall mean survival time was 38.65 months. Conclusion. Primary colorectal lymphoma is a rare malignant tumor of the large bowel. Therapy usually involves resection of the affected colon or rectum and regional lymphovascular structures, followed by adjuvant therapy. Survival period is short and, therefore, timely diagnosis is crucial in early disease stages when the probability of cure is high.”
“A feeding experiment was conducted to measure the faecal recovery rates of n-alkanes and to evaluate molasses-based alkane boluses for feed intake and digestibility estimations in cattle consuming low-quality tropical roughages. The experiment was performed in a cross-over design with four experimental diets, four 21-day feeding runs and eight bulls.

Results: In 1793, the first known outbreak of botulism occurred d

Results: In 1793, the first known outbreak of botulism occurred due to ‘spoiled’ sausage in Wildebad, Germany. The German physician and poet Justinus Kerner published the first accurate description of the clinical symptoms of botulism (sausage poison). He was also the first to mention its potential therapeutic applications. In urology, BoNT has been used in bladder and urethral lesions with varying degree of success. Recently, BoNT applications JNK-IN-8 were explained for prostatic disorders. BoNT applications in urology are in the treatment of detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia, detrusor overactivity, detrusor underactivity,

spastic conditions of the urethral sphincter, chronic prostate pain, interstitial cystitis, non-fibrotic bladder outflow obstruction (including benign prostatic hyperplasia) and acute urinary retention in women. Conclusion: Justinus Kerner

is the godfather of botulism research. The role of BoNT in urology has evolved exponentially and it is widely used as an adjuvant in voiding dysfunction. 3-MA datasheet In the future, its utility will broaden and guide the urologist in managing various urological disorders. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“We present the electromyographic (EMG) results ten years after open decompression of the median nerve at the wrist and compare them with the clinical and functional outcomes as judged by Levine’s Questionnaire. This retrospective study evaluated 115 patients who had undergone carpal tunnel decompression at a mean of 10.47 years (9.24 to 11.36) previously. A positive EMG diagnosis

was found in 77 patients (67%), including those who were asymptomatic at ten years.\n\nIt is necessary to include both clinical and functional results as well as electromyographic testing in the long-term evaluation of patients who have undergone carpal tunnel decompression particularly in those in whom revision surgery is being considered. In doubtful cases or when there are differing outcomes, self-administered scales such as Levine’s Questionnaire should prevail over EMG results when deciding on the need for revision surgery.”
“Objective: This study was undertaken to examine the accuracy of two hand-held devices commonly used to measure the pressures produced by extensible bandages. Method:The performance of Temsirolimus nmr the pneumatic sensors of two devices, the Kikuhime and Picopress instruments was first examined in air in a compression chamber, then subsequently beneath multiple layers of bandages applied to standard cylinders with predetermined levels of tension. Results: In the compression chamber, both instruments provided readings that were typically within I mmHg of the reference value, but on curved formers in free air or beneath bandages the accuracy of both sensors was greatly reduced, influenced both by the curvature of the cylinders and the volume of air contained in the sensor capsule.