The remaining two doses were taken that day, ad libitum. For the remaining four days of the week, participants were instructed to mix and consume the four doses (6 g per day) of their respective supplement, ad libitum. Throughout the second three-week training period, participants supplemented in a similar TSA HDAC research buy manner for on- and off-training days, for an additional 21 days, at a dose of 3 g per day, taken in two, 16.5 g doses (1.5 g β-alanine, 15 g dextrose). The participants in
the placebo group consumed an isovolumetric flavored powder (16.5 g dextrose) identical in appearance and taste to the β-alanine. Participants were asked to record each dose on a designated dosing log for each day and they were asked to bring in the supplement packaging to allow investigators
to monitor compliance. Determination of body composition Body composition was assessed prior-to, mid-way, and following training and supplementing by using air displacement plethysmography (Bod Pod®). The subjects’ weight PF-4708671 manufacturer (kg) and body volume were measured and used to determine percent body fat, fat mass (kg), and lean body mass (kg) using the revised formula of Brozek et al. . Statistical analysis Separate two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (group [β-alanine vs. placebo] × time [pre- vs. mid- vs. post-supplementation]) were used to identify any group by time interactions. If a significant interaction occurred,
the statistical model was decomposed by examining the simple main effects with separate one-way repeated measures ANOVAs for each group and one-way factorial ANOVAs for each time. An alpha of p ≤ 0.05 was used Amrubicin to determine statistical significance. All data are reported as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Results Table 1 presents the mean and standard deviation values for VO2peak (l·min-1), VO2TTE (seconds), VT (watts) and TWD (kJ) for both treatment groups at pre-, mid- and post-testing. Table 1 Mean ± SD values for VO2peak (l·min-1), VO2TTE (s), VT (W) and TWD (kJ) at pre-, mid-, and post-testing. Maximal Oxygen Consumption (l·min-1) Time to Exhaustion (s) Ventilatory Threshold (W) Total Work Done (kJ) β-alanine Placebo β-alanine Placebo β-alanine Placebo β-alanine Placebo Pre-test Mean 3.28 3.25 1168.2 1128.7 140.3 127.3 58.4 55.7 SD 0.57 0.63 163.6 166.9 35.5 42.6 19.2 13.8 Mid-test Mean 3.52* 3.56* 1304.9* 1258.7* 154.2 140.3 89.0* 83.3* SD 0.49 0.56 153.7 204.5 36.6 52.3 30.1 25.7 Post-test Mean 3.67† 3.66 1386.7† 1299.6 172.2 188.9† 131.3† 102.0† SD 0.58 0.55 234.9 164.9 65.2 58.3 81.7 36.7 *indicates a significant difference from pre- to CCI-779 nmr mid-testing (p < 0.05) †indicates a significant improvement from mid- to post-testing (p < 0.