“Due to the high importance of biofilms on river ecosystems, assessment of pesticides’ adverse effects is necessary
but is impaired Selleckchem Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Library by high variability and poor reproducibility of both natural biofilms and those developed in the laboratory. We constructed a model biofilm to evaluate the effects of pesticides, consisting in cultured microbial strains, Pedobacter sp. 7-11, Aquaspirillum sp. T-5, Stenotrophomonas sp. 3-7, Achnanthes minutissima N71, Nitzschia palea N489, and/or Cyclotella meneghiniana N803. Microbial cell numbers, esterase activity, chlorophyll-a content, and the community structure of the model biofilm were examined and found to be useful as biological factors for evaluating the pesticide effects. The model biofilm was formed through the cooperative interaction of bacteria and diatoms, and a preliminary experiment using the herbicide atrazine, which inhibits diatom
growth, indicated that the adverse effect on diatoms selleck inhibitor inhibited indirectly the bacterial growth and activity and, thus, the formation of the model biofilm. Toxicological tests using model biofilms could be useful for evaluating the pesticide effects and complementary to studies on actual river biofilms.”
“The increasing occurrence of drug-resistant bacterial infections in the clinic has created a need for new antibacterial agents. Natural products have historically been a rich source of both antibiotics and lead compounds for new antibacterial agents. The natural product simocyclinone D8 (SD8) has been reported to inhibit DNA gyrase, a validated antibacterial drug target,
by a unique catalytic inhibition mechanism of action. In this work, we have prepared simplified flavone-based analogues inspired by the complex natural product and evaluated their inhibitory activity and mechanism of action. While two of these compounds do inhibit DNA gyrase, they do so by a different mechanism of action than SD8, namely DNA intercalation. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“In explicitly correlated coupled-cluster singles and doubles [CCSD(F12)] calculations, the basis set incompleteness error in the double excitations is reduced to such an extent that the error in ERK inhibitor the Hartree-Fock energy and the error in the single excitations become important. Using arguments from perturbation theory to systematically truncate the coupled-cluster singles and CCSD(F12) Lagrangians, a series of coupled-cluster models are proposed and studied that reduce these basis set incompleteness errors through additional single excitations into a complementary auxiliary basis. Convergence with model and size of complementary basis is rapid and there appears to be no need to go beyond second-order models. Our iterative second-order approach is a slight improvement over the existing noniterative approach, but its main advantage is that it is suitable for response theory.