Urologists can use this nomogram to better inform patients of the potential need for epididymovasostomy and whether specialist referral is needed.”
“The neuregulin 1 (NRG1) receptor ErbB4 is involved in the development of cortical inhibitory GABAergic circuits and NRG1-ErbB4 signaling has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ). A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS) study has demonstrated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ERBB4, rs7598440, influences human cortical GABA concentrations. Other work has highlighted the significant impact of this genetic variant on
expression of ERBB4 in the hippocampus and dorsolateral Selleck ZD1839 prefrontal cortex in human post mortem tissue. Our aim was to examine the association of rs7598440 with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GABA levels in healthy volunteers (n = 155). We detected a significant Selleck Epacadostat dose-dependent association of the rs7598440 genotype with CSF GABA levels (G-allele standardized beta = -0.23; 95% CIs: -0.39 to -0.07; P=0.0066). GABA concentrations were highest in A homozygous, intermediate in heterozygous, and lowest in G homozygous subjects. When excluding subjects on psychotropic medication (three subjects using antidepressants), the results did not change (G-allele standardized beta=-0.23; 95% CIs: -0.40
to -0.07; P=0.0051). The explained variance in CSF GABA by rs7598440 in our model is 5.2% (P=0.004). The directionality of our findings agrees with the aforementioned H-1-MRS and gene expression studies. Our observation therefore strengthens the evidence that the A-allele of rs7598440 in ERBB4 is associated with increased GABA concentrations in the human central nervous Milciclib research buy system (CNS). To our knowledge, our finding constitutes the first confirmation that CSF can be used to study genotype-phenotype correlations of GABA levels in the CNS. Such quantitative genetic analyses may be extrapolated to other CSF constituents relevant to SCZ in future studies. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 2088-2092; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.57; published online
2 May 2012″
“Nanomedicine, or medicine using nanometric devices, has emerged in the past decade as an exhilarating domain that can help to solve a number of problems linked to unsatisfactory therapeutic responses of so-called ‘old drugs’. This dissatisfaction stems from inadequate biodistribution after a drug’s application, which leads to a limited therapeutic response but also to numerous side effects to healthy organs. The biodistribution of drugs encapsulated in a nanoobject that will act as a vector can be modified to tune its therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a general overview of existing colloidal nanovectors: liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric vesicles, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), and dendrimers. We describe their characteristics, advantages and drawbacks, and discuss their use in the treatment of various diseases.