The molecular weights

The molecular weights MDV3100 clinical trial of the precursors are smaller than the critical molecular

weight for the onset of entanglement coupling. The relaxation time of the elastomers (tau(D)) is proportional to the square of the molecular weight of the dangling chains equivalent to the monofunctional PBA (M(D)), and tau(D) is about 2.5 times larger than the relaxation time of the corresponding free guest chains in the elastomers (tau(G)). These observations are close to the expectations from the Rouse-chain dynamics without entanglement effect (tau(D) similar to M(D)(2) and tau(D) = 4 tau(G)). These results provide an important basis for the understanding of the dynamics of the unentangled chains whose one end is tethered to the permanent networks. The results also offer a route of molecular control of characteristic frequency and strength of mechanical

damping of elastomers.”
“Purpose Resident burnout continues to be a major problem despite work hours restrictions. The authors conducted a longitudinal study to Epigenetic high throughput screening determine whether burnout in internal medicine residents is persistent and what factors predispose residents to persistent burnout.\n\nMethod The authors mailed a survey to internal medicine residents at the University of Colorado Denver Health Science Center each May, from 2003 through 2008. The survey measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory organized into three subscales: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP), and personal accomplishment. The MS-275 Epigenetics inhibitor authors defined burned-out residents as having a high EE or DP score and persistent burnout as being burned out during all three years of residency.\n\nResults Of the 179 eligible residents, 86 (48%) responded to the survey during all three years of their residency. Sixty-seven residents (78%) were burned out at least once: 58 residents (67%) were burned out during their internship, 58 (67%) during their second year, and 50 (58%) during their third year (P <.08).

Of the 58 burned-out interns, 42 (72%) continued to be burned out through their three years of training. Persistent burnout was more likely to occur in men (OR = 3.31, P <.01) and was associated with screening positive for depression as an intern (OR = 4.4, P <.002).\n\nConclusions Once present, burnout tends to persist through residency. Men and residents who screened positive for depression as interns are at the highest risk for persistent burnout. Interventions to prevent burnout during internship may significantly decrease burnout throughout residency.”
“Background: Projects are an important tool in faculty development, and project emphasis may offer insights into perceived education priorities. Impact of projects has been focused on individuals, not institutions or health.

Combined treatment with a single-stage procedure

is feasi

Combined treatment with a single-stage procedure

is feasible. Risk of graft infection may be lower than expected.”
“Bionomics of Aphis gossypii Glover and its predators Coccinella septempunctata L. and Hippodamia variegata Goeze were studied in Varamin (Tehran Province) during 11(th) May to 5(th) October 2006 on eggplant crop, with this website the interaction (density dependence) between the aphid and either of the predators determined. The reliable sample size (number of leaves) with a maximum variation of 6.73% was about 56. The index of dispersion, regression models (Taylor and Iwao), Morisita’s index as well as Lloyd’s mean crowding to mean were employed to estimate the spatial distribution pattern of the insects. The results indicated that the highest population densities of A. gossypii, C. septempunctata and H. variegata occurred in 8(th) June (11.62 per leaf), 17(th) August (0.36 per leaf) and 3(rd) August (2.11 per leaf), respectively. The index of dispersion, regression models (Taylor and Iwao), Morisita’s index and Lloyd’s mean crowding to mean showed aggregated distribution for all species. The linear regression model between prey and predators’ population densities showed a density independent predation by C septempunctata and H.

variegata on A. gossypii. This study indicated selleck screening library that spatial distribution parameters of the cotton aphid and its natural enemies can be employed to outline a sampling program and to estimate the population densities of these insects for use in learn more integrated pest management programs.”
“A series of novel, potent, and selective human beta(2) adrenoceptor agonists incorporating a sulfone moiety

on the terminal right-hand-side phenyl ring of (R)-salmeterol is presented. Sulfone 10b had salmeterol-like potency and selectivity profile, long duration of action on guinea pig trachea, and longer than salmeterol duration of action in vivo, suitable for once-daily dosing. It had lower than salmeterol oral absorption in rat, lower bioavailability in rat and dog, and a high turnover in human hepatocytes. It was metabolized in human hepatocytes by hydroxylation, oxidation, cleavage, and conjugation; most of the metabolites would be expected to have reduced or no beta(2) activity. The 4-biphenylsulfonic acid was identified as a crystalline, non-hygroscopic salt of 10b, suitable for inhaled delivery. Furthermore, it was free of any genetic toxicity issues and was considered as a backup to vilanterol.”
“A comparative analysis of the two most widely used water models, SPC/E and TIP4P, was carried out. The applicability of the models for studying the conformational mobility of peptides of the insulin superfamily, including proinsulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2), was assessed.

A -6 00D SMILE correction was performed in 9 rabbit eyes The len

A -6.00D SMILE correction was performed in 9 rabbit eyes. The lenticules were cryopreserved for 14 days and re-implanted. Five weeks later, 3

of these eyes underwent LASIK for -5.00D correction (RL group); 3 underwent LASIK flap creation, which was not lifted (RN); and no further procedures were performed on the remaining 3 eyes. These groups were compared with 3 eyes that underwent standard LASIK for a -5.00D correction (LO); 3 that underwent creation of non-lifted flap (LN); and 3 non-operated eyes. Rabbits were euthanized find protocol 1 day post-surgery. Tissue responses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, slit lamp and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Intrastromal irregularities and elevated reflectivity levels of the excimer-ablated plane were observed on slit lamp and IVCM, respectively in the RL group. The results were comparable (P MS-275 nmr = 0.310) to IVCM findings in the LO group. RL and LO groups showed similar fibronectin expression levels, number of CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.304) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.198). There was no difference between the RN and

LN groups in reflectivity levels (P = 0.627), fibronectin expression levels, CD11b-positive cells (P = 0.135) and apoptotic cells (P = 0.128). LASIK can be performed following lenticule re-implantation to create presbyopic monovision. The tissue responses elicited after performing LASIK on corneas that have undergone SMILE and subsequent lenticule re-implantation are similar to primary procedure.”
“Background Head lice are a source of amusement for outsiders and an embarrassing nuisance to those who have to deal with them. Our study collected the emotions experienced by people dealing with head lice. An area with extremely

sparse literature, our purpose is to inform the development of more effective see more programs to control head lice. Methods We asked what were your feelings upon discovery of head lice? as part of a study exploring the experience of those treating head lice. A short questionnaire was available via the authors head lice information internet site. A total of 294 eligible responses were collected over several months and analyzed, supported by QSR N6. Results The predominantly female (90.9%) respondents were residents of Australia (56.1%), USA (20.4%), Canada (7.2%), or UK (4.4%), and working full-time (43.0%) or part-time (34.2%). Reactions and feelings fell into three categories: strong (n = 320; 79% of all stated emotions), mediocre (n = 56; 20%), and neutral (n = 29; 9.8%). There were no positive emotions. Comment The significant negative reaction was expected. The range of feeling expressed demonstrates the stigma held for these ectoparasites within western market economies. This contrasts with conceptions of head lice in traditional societies.

“Solar cells incorporated with multi-coloring capability n

“Solar cells incorporated with multi-coloring capability not only offer an aesthetic solution to bridge the gap between solar modules and building decorations but also open up the possibility for self-powered colorful display. In this paper, we proposed a multi-colored semi-transparent organic solar cells (TOSCs) design containing metallic nanostructures with the both high color purity and efficiency based on theoretical considerations. By employing guided mode resonance effect, the multi-colored TOSC behave like an

efficient color filter that selectively transmits light with the desired wavelengths and generates electricity with light of other wavelengths. Broad range of coloring and luminosity adjusting for the transmission light can be achieved by simply tuning the period and the LY411575 mw duty cycle of the metallic nanostructures. Furthermore, accompanying with the efficient color filtering characteristics, the optical absorption of TOSCs was improved due to the marked suppression of transmission loss at the off-resonance wavelengths and the increased light trapping in TOSCs. The mechanisms of the light guiding in photoactive layer and broadband backward scattering from the metallic nanostructures were identified to make an essential contribution to the improved light-harvesting. By enabling efficient color

control and high efficiency simultaneously, this approach holds

great promise for future versatile KU-57788 solubility dmso photovoltaic energy utilization.”
“Systemic measurements show that there is no 3D to 2D crossover in the reduction of the superconducting transition temperature T-c in Nb thin films. This result is consistent with all previous measurements while it is contrary to the prevailing understanding based on the interplay between proximity, localization, and lifetime broadening. Our study indicates SB203580 chemical structure that the decrease of T-c can be interpreted by the combined effects of electron-phonon coupling parameter lambda and the defect scattering rate rho(w), being uniquely determined by their ratio lambda/rho(w). Other factors such as film thickness and irradiation do not produce additional effects beyond these two parameters.”
“Introduction: Natural scaffolds have been shown to induce T helper 2 (TH2)-specific immune responses in host tissues; however, the precise mechanisms that underlie this immune response are unknown. Using a porcine animal model, we evaluated the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and matrix remodelling in the implantation of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) grafts and ACMs fortified with biomimetic materials. Materials and Methods: Bladders were decellularized with detergent and treated in 3 different ways prior to implantation: ACM alone, hyaluronic acid (HA)-ACM and HA-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-ACM.

1-16 3 and OR 6 4, 95% CI 1 3-30 9, respectively) In conclusion,

1-16.3 and OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.3-30.9, respectively). In conclusion, EPE carriage is SYN-117 concentration common 12 months after infection and persisting carriage may be associated with E. coli phylogroup B2 and CTX-M-gr.-9. The host strain frequently changes throughout carriage and negative samples do not imply eliminated carriage.”
“Recent studies identified a poor-prognosis stem/serrated/mesenchymal (SSM) transcriptional subtype of colorectal cancer (CRC). We noted that genes upregulated in this subtype are also prominently expressed by stromal cells, suggesting that SSM transcripts could

derive from stromal rather than epithelial cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed CRC expression data from patient-derived xenografts, where mouse stroma supports human cancer cells. Species-specific expression analysis showed that the mRNA levels of SSM genes were mostly due to stromal expression. Transcriptional signatures built to specifically report the abundance of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), leukocytes or endothelial

cells all had significantly higher expression in human CRC samples of the SSM subtype. High expression of the CAF signature was associated with poor prognosis in untreated CRC, and joint high expression of the stromal signatures predicted resistance to radiotherapy Selleckchem GS-9973 in rectal cancer. These data show that the distinctive transcriptional and clinical features of the SSM subtype can be ascribed to its particularly abundant stromal component.”
“Biofilms are microbial communities that form on surfaces and are embedded in an extracellular matrix. C. albicans forms pathogenic mucosal biofilms that are evoked by changes in host immunity or mucosal ecology. Mucosal surfaces are inhabited by many microbial species; hence these biofilms are polymicrobial. Several recent studies have applied paradigms of biofilm analysis to study mucosal C. albicans infections. These studies reveal that the Bcr1 transcription factor is a master regulator of C. albicans biofilm formation

under diverse conditions, though the most relevant Bcr1 target genes can vary with the biofilm niche. An important determinant of mucosal biofilm formation is the interaction with host defenses. Finally, studies of interactions between bacterial species and C. albicans provide insight into the communication mechanisms that endow polymicrobial biofilms with unique properties.”
“Few studies have examined age find protocol of onset and chronicity of depression in the same subject sample. The present study sought to determine whether personality traits related to early onset depression were different from those related to chronic depression. We tested the associations between personality self-reports and clinical characteristics of depression by conducting multiple and logistic regression analyses to determine whether personality uniquely predicted clinical characteristics and whether clinical characteristics uniquely predicted personality, after adjusting for depression severity.

A total of 110 sacroiliac joints in 55 patients with active AS we

A total of 110 sacroiliac joints in 55 patients with active AS were detected by PDUS before and after the infliximab treatment. The color flow signals inside the sacroiliac joints were observed, and the resistance index (RI) was measured. The clinical condition of the AS patients was improved compared with their condition before the infliximab treatment. Before the treatment, color flow signals were observed in 103 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.56 +/- A 0.06. Three months after the first infliximab treatment, color flow signals were observed

in 50 joints, and the mean RI value was 0.87 BI 2536 in vivo +/- A 0.11. There were more blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints before the infliximab treatment in patients with active AS (p < 0.01), and the mean RI value was higher after the infliximab treatment (p < 0.01). The blood flow signals in the sacroiliac joints became weaker or even disappeared and

the RI values increased in patients with active sacroiliitis after infliximab treatment. This result shows that PDUS can be used in the follow-up of patients with axial AS.”
“Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) cover a wide range of structural malformations that result from defects in the morphogenesis of the kidney and/or urinary tract. These anomalies account for about 40-50 % of children with chronic Selleck VX-689 kidney disease worldwide. Knowledge from genetically modified mouse models suggests that single gene mutations in renal developmental genes may lead to CAKUT in humans. However, until recently, only a handful of CAKUT-causing genes were reported, most of them in familial syndromic cases. Recent findings suggest that CAKUT may arise from mutations in a multitude of different single gene causes. We focus here on single-gene causes of CAKUT and their developmental origin. Currently, more than 20 monogenic Compound C price CAKUT-causing genes have been identified. High-throughput sequencing techniques make it likely

that additional CAKUT-causing genes will be identified in the near future.”
“Agave tequilana fructans (ATF) constitute a substrate for bioethanol and tequila industries. As Kluyveromyces marxianus produces specific fructanases for ATF hydrolysis, as well as ethanol, it can perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In this work, fifteen K. marxianus yeasts were evaluated to develop inoculums with fructanase activity on ATF. These inoculums were added to an ATF medium for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. All the yeasts, showed exo-fructanhydrolase activity with different substrate specificities. The yeast with highest fructanase activity in the inoculums showed the lowest ethanol production level (20 g/l). Five K. marxianus strains were the most suitable for the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of ATF.

PEG is converted to PEG-carboxylate by PegA (PEG dehydrogenase) a

PEG is converted to PEG-carboxylate by PegA (PEG dehydrogenase) and

PegC (PEG-aldehyde dehydrogenase). In this study, the recombinant PegE (homologous to acyl-CoA synthetases) was characterized. PegE was an acyl-CoA synthetase active for PEG-carboxylate and fatty acids. Judging from the nature of this kind of protein (located on the cytoplasmic membrane as a translocator), PegE might be responsible for the translocation of PEG-carboxylate from the periplasm into the cytoplasm or for the detoxification Elafibranor of strong acidity of the substrate.”
“Cell migration is initiated by lamellipodia-membrane-enclosed sheets of cytoplasm containing densely packed actin filament networks. Although the molecular details of network turnover remain obscure, recent work points towards key roles in filament nucleation for Arp2/3 complex PLX4032 order and its activator WAVE complex. Here, we combine fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) of different lamellipodial components with a new method of data analysis to shed light on the dynamics of actin assembly/disassembly. We show that Arp2/3 complex is incorporated into the network exclusively at the lamellipodium tip, like actin, at sites coincident with WAVE complex accumulation. Capping

protein likewise showed a turnover similar to actin and Arp2/3 complex, but was confined to the tip. In contrast, cortactin – another prominent Arp2/3 complex regulator – and ADF/cofilin – previously implicated in driving both filament nucleation and disassembly – were rapidly exchanged throughout the selleck screening library lamellipodium. These results suggest that Arp2/3- and WAVE complex-driven actin filament nucleation at the lamellipodium tip is uncoupled from the activities of both cortactin and cofilin. Network turnover is additionally regulated by the spatially segregated activities of capping protein at the tip and cofilin throughout the mesh.”
“Skin diseases can be characterized by their predominant CD4-positive T-helper (Th) cell profiles. Chronic dermatological conditions often give rise to abnormal skin pigmentation. To understand

the role of Th cells in pigmentation, the effects of the major Th cell cytokines, IFN gamma, IL-4, and IL-17A, on melanogenesis were evaluated using cultured normal human melanocytes (NHMs) instead of relying on transformed melanoma cell lines. IL-4 directly inhibited melanogenesis in NHMs and downregulated both transcription and translation of melanogenesis-associated genes, such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and dopachrome tautomerase. Despite the lack of a direct inhibition of melanin pigment synthesis, IFN gamma and IL-17A increased the synthesis of an antimelanogenic cytokine IL-6 in NHMs. IFN gamma, activated signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3 phosphorylation in NHMs, and IL-4 increased the STAT3 and STAT6 phosphorylation.

Women who had never used EC and who had more than one episode of

Women who had never used EC and who had more than one episode of unprotected sex within the past month were less likely to request EC when use was indicated, while single women were more likely to request EC.\n\nConclusions: Counseling regarding EC options is particularly important for women seeking same-day pregnancy testing who do not desire pregnancy. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”

of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is difficult, and the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. However, many drugs causing DILI are considered to form reactive metabolites and covalently bind to cellular macromolecules in the liver. The objective of this study was to clarify whether the risk of idiosyncratic DILI can be estimated by comparing in vitro covalent binding (CB) levels among 12 positive compounds (acetaminophen, alpidem, bromfenac, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flutamide, imipramine, nefazodone, tacrine, ticlopidine, tienilic acid, and troglitazone) for DILI and 12 negative compounds (acetylsalicylic

acid, caffeine, dexamethasone, losartan, ibuprofen, paroxetine, pioglitazone, rosiglitazone, sertraline, theophylline, venlafaxine, and zolpidem). After incubation with human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, there was a large overlap in the distribution of CB amounts between the positive and negative groups. On addition of UDP-glucuronic acid (UDPGA) as a cofactor for glucuronidation, the CB levels of bromfenac and diclofenac were increased. With addition of nucleophilic glutathione (GSH), values for most compounds were decreased. However, separation selleck chemicals llc of the two groups on the basis of CB could not be improved by UDPGA or GSH. Furthermore, CB with human hepatocytes also failed to discriminate positive from negative compounds. Therefore, the CB amount alone is not sufficient for risk assessment of DILI. In contrast, when the CB amount Cl-amidine mw was multiplied by the maximum daily dose, which

may reflect maximum hepatic exposure, the two groups did become discriminated. Taken together, our findings suggest that the combination of CB amount and daily dose can estimate the risk of idiosyncratic DILI.”
“Various conjugates of anticancer drug doxorubicin (Dox) covalently bound by the hydrolytically degradable hydrazone bond to the drug carrier based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymers were synthesised. Structure of the conjugates differed in the type and the content of hydrophobic substituent (dodecyl, oleic acid and cholesterol moieties) introduced into the polymer structure. In aqueous solutions the conjugates self-assembled into high-molecular-weight suprantolecular structures, such as polymeric micelles or stable hydrophilic nanoparticles 13-37 nm in diameter, depending on the type and the content of hydrophobic substituents. Treatment of mice bearing EL-4 T cell lymphoma with the conjugates in the therapeutic regime of drug administration (i.v.

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) as well as the Food and Drug

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have published guidance documents addressing the potentials and limitations of adaptive designs in the regulatory context. Since there is limited experience in the

implementation and interpretation of adaptive clinical trials, early interaction with regulators is recommended. The EMA offers such interactions through scientific advice and protocol assistance procedures. Methods: We performed a text search of scientific advice letters issued between 1 January 2007 and 8 May 2012 that contained relevant key terms. Letters containing questions related to adaptive clinical trials in phases II or III were selected for further analysis. From the selected letters, important characteristics of the proposed design and its context in the drug development program, as well as the responses of the Committee for Human Medicinal Products (CHMP)/Scientific selleck chemicals llc Advice Working Party (SAWP), were extracted and categorized. For 41 more recent procedures (1 January 2009 to 8 May 2012), additional details of the trial design and the CHMP/SAWP responses were assessed. In addition, case studies are presented as examples. Results: Over a range of 51/2 years, 59 scientific advices were identified that address adaptive study designs in phase II and phase III clinical

trials. Almost all were proposed as confirmatory phase III or phase II/III studies. The most frequently proposed adaptation was sample size reassessment, followed by dropping of treatment arms and population enrichment. While

12 (20%) of the 59 SB203580 chemical structure proposals for an adaptive clinical trial were not accepted, the great majority of proposals were accepted (15, 25%) or conditionally accepted (32, 54%). In the more recent 41 procedures, the most frequent concerns raised by CHMP/SAWP were insufficient justifications of the adaptation strategy, type I error rate control and bias. Conclusions: For the majority of proposed adaptive clinical trials, an overall positive opinion was given albeit with critical comments. Type I error rate control, bias and the justification of the design are common issues raised by the CHMP/ SAWP.”
“Background It is unknown if contemporary preventive treatments such as statins or primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) have rendered obsolete the use of measured exercise capacity for assessment of future risk and prognosis. Using a sample of patients from 2 clinical sites, most of whom were taking beta-blockade, antiplatelet, and statin therapy, we hypothesized that peak oxygen consumption (Vo(2)) would remain a strong and independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular-specific mortality in men and women with CHD.\n\nMethods We studied 2,812 patients with CHD between mortality served as end points.

46%) were significantly (P<0 05) higher in the T-3 group By c

46%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the T-3 group. By contrast, the quantities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were significantly (P<0.05) lower (48.84%, 10.38% and 22.08%, respectively) Selleckchem SBE-β-CD in the T-3 group and higher in the T-1 (control) and T-2 groups.\n\nFrom this study,

it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of VE to the basal diet has no effect on the production performance but supplementation of a higher level of VE (300 IU kg(-1) diet) improved the biochemical characteristics of the foam and moderate levels of VE (150 IU kg(-1) diet) improved the foam production of male Japanese quail. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We have investigated a possible method of synthesizing carbon-free, nano-silicon nitride silicon carbide (Si3N4/SiC) powders from the waste silica fume for the first time, using the integrated mechanical and thermal activation (IMTA) process. This novel process results in the formation of nano-Si3N4/SiC powders at 1465 degrees C with crystallite sizes as small as 45 nm. In order to synthesize carbon-free

nano-Si3N4/SiC powders, two different approaches, one using the H-2 gas and the other using air, have been studied for their effectiveness in removing the free carbon present. It is found that the H-2 treatment is not very effective although both Si3N4 and SiC are stable during the H-2 treatment. In contrast, removing the free carbon using air is effective, and the limited oxidation of nano-Si3N4 and SiC can be achieved if the air treatment is terminated soon after the free carbon is eliminated. This study has provided a clear pathway and understanding for effectively synthesizing

carbon-free, nano-Si3N4/SiC powders from the silica fume. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd and Techna Group S.r.l. All rights reserved.”
“Scintillation characteristics such as the pulse height, energy resolution, and decay time of single crystals of Tl-doped NaI (Tl:NaI), Ce-doped Lu2SiO5 (Ce:LSO), Ce-doped YAlO3 (Ce:YAP), Ce-doped Gd-3(Al,Ga)(5)O-12 (Ce:GAGG), Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), undoped LuAG, and Ce-doped Y3Al5O12 (Ce:YAG) transparent ceramics were compared at 25-150 degrees C to simulate well Selleck Stem Cell Compound Library logging conditions. For increasing temperature, the light output of the scintillators decreased, mostly because of thermal quenching. Among these samples, Pr:LuAG demonstrated the highest scintillation performance at 150 degrees C. (C) 2013 The Japan Society of Applied Physics”
“The effect was assessed of including licuri and castor oils in the diet on the production and chemical composition of milk from goats and the economic viability of the diets. Crossbred Moxoto goats in a 5 x 5 Latin square design were used with two replications consisting of five diets: a control treatment without supplementary oil (control), and the others with 3% or 5% licuri or castor oil.