4-in. wafer 40,536 Perret et al.  8-in. wafer 20,000
Additionally, air bubble entrapment issues are also commonly observed in P2P NIL, particularly in large-area, single-step processes [21, 26] as air is easily trapped in the gaps between resist and mold cavities, resulting in defects on the imprinted structures. The risk of defects is increased when the mold contains depressions or when the resist is deposited as droplets rather than spin-coated, which allows air to be trapped easily , which results in the need to conduct the imprinting process #Selleck CP673451 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# under vacuum to prevent trapping of air bubbles as observed in [5, 8, 21]. However, vacuum or reduced atmosphere chambers are difficult to be implemented in a system with a continuous web feed. Hiroshima and the team had been working on this matter and introduced the usage of pentafluoropropane as ambient to solve the bubble defect problem [27–29]. Alternatively, in multiple-step imprinting, smaller wafer sizes are used to pattern over a larger area in the form of a matrix (also known as SSIL) as observed in the work of Haatainen and the team [30, 31], which reduces both the required force and air bubble issue observed in a single-step imprinting. However, this website such system is typically more complicated
as it requires highly accurate mold alignment during imprinting. Roll-to-plate NIL On the contrary, in R2P NIL, a roller LY294002 press mechanism is used to provide the imprinting force onto a rigid surface as shown previously in Figure 3. Since a roller press mechanism is utilized in roller-based NIL, the actual contact area during imprinting is only a line along the roller in contact with the substrate rather than the entire stamp area in P2P NIL. This very much reduces the required imprinting force in the NIL process [32, 33], which may go as low as 200 N to achieve an imprinting pressure of approximately 1 bar for an imprinting width of 300 mm . Additionally, due to the line contact, the roller-based
NIL process has the advantage of reduced issues regarding trapped air bubbles, thickness variation, and dust pollutants, which also greatly improve its replication uniformity [34, 35]. First introduced by Tan and the team  in 1998, R2P NIL may be conducted in two methods: the simpler method using a roller press to imprint a resist or substrate layer onto a rigid flat mold. In Figure 4, a flat mold with nanostructures is used to imprint onto a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) layer, where the imprint force is provided by a roller press instead of imprinting the entire area using the stamp itself. This concept or technique is also observed in the work of Kim and the group . Additionally, the roller may also be used to press a flexible polymer film onto the mold for imprinting via thermal NIL as observed in the work of Song et al.  and Lim et al. , as shown in Figures 5 and 6.