Urologists can use this nomogram to better inform patients of the

Urologists can use this nomogram to better inform patients of the potential need for epididymovasostomy and whether specialist referral is needed.”
“The neuregulin 1 (NRG1) receptor ErbB4 is involved in the development of cortical inhibitory GABAergic circuits and NRG1-ErbB4 signaling has been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ). A magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS) study has demonstrated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism in ERBB4, rs7598440, influences human cortical GABA concentrations. Other work has highlighted the significant impact of this genetic variant on

expression of ERBB4 in the hippocampus and dorsolateral Selleck ZD1839 prefrontal cortex in human post mortem tissue. Our aim was to examine the association of rs7598440 with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GABA levels in healthy volunteers (n = 155). We detected a significant Selleck Epacadostat dose-dependent association of the rs7598440 genotype with CSF GABA levels (G-allele standardized beta = -0.23; 95% CIs: -0.39 to -0.07; P=0.0066). GABA concentrations were highest in A homozygous, intermediate in heterozygous, and lowest in G homozygous subjects. When excluding subjects on psychotropic medication (three subjects using antidepressants), the results did not change (G-allele standardized beta=-0.23; 95% CIs: -0.40

to -0.07; P=0.0051). The explained variance in CSF GABA by rs7598440 in our model is 5.2% (P=0.004). The directionality of our findings agrees with the aforementioned H-1-MRS and gene expression studies. Our observation therefore strengthens the evidence that the A-allele of rs7598440 in ERBB4 is associated with increased GABA concentrations in the human central nervous Milciclib research buy system (CNS). To our knowledge, our finding constitutes the first confirmation that CSF can be used to study genotype-phenotype correlations of GABA levels in the CNS. Such quantitative genetic analyses may be extrapolated to other CSF constituents relevant to SCZ in future studies. Neuropsychopharmacology (2012) 37, 2088-2092; doi:10.1038/npp.2012.57; published online

2 May 2012″
“Nanomedicine, or medicine using nanometric devices, has emerged in the past decade as an exhilarating domain that can help to solve a number of problems linked to unsatisfactory therapeutic responses of so-called ‘old drugs’. This dissatisfaction stems from inadequate biodistribution after a drug’s application, which leads to a limited therapeutic response but also to numerous side effects to healthy organs. The biodistribution of drugs encapsulated in a nanoobject that will act as a vector can be modified to tune its therapeutic efficacy. This review provides a general overview of existing colloidal nanovectors: liposomes, polymeric micelles, polymeric vesicles, polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), and dendrimers. We describe their characteristics, advantages and drawbacks, and discuss their use in the treatment of various diseases.

Responses to noxious heat were

Responses to noxious heat were selleck kinase inhibitor unaffected by 10% CA and menthol regardless of the order of chemical presentation. These data indicate that superficial Vc neurons receive convergent input from primary afferents expressing TRPM8 and TRPA1. The mutual cross-desensitization between CA and menthol, and differential modulation of cold- vs. heat-evoked responses, suggests a direct inhibition of TRPM8 and TRPA1 expressed in peripheral nerve endings by CA and menthol,

respectively, rather than a central site of interaction. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The role of the alpha 4 beta 2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) in tobacco addiction in humans is largely unresolved. We visualized brain alpha 4 beta 2* nicotinic

PX-478 molecular weight acetylcholine receptors of smokers and non-smokers with positron emission tomography using 2-[F-18]fluoro-3-(2(S)azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine, commonly known as 2-[F-18]F-A-85380. The total brain distribution volume of 2-[F-18]F-A-85380 was significantly increased in smokers. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that the most prominent regional differences of distribution volumes (DV) were found in cerebellum and brainstem with an increased uptake in smokers. The up-regulation of alpha 4 beta 2* nAChR upon chronic nicotine exposure via tobacco smoking incorporates Selleckchem MK-0518 subcortical brain regions which may play an important role in nicotine addiction. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“[C-11]Raclopride ([C-11]RAC) is a selective dopamine D-2/D-3 antagonist that is commonly used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies to assess both basal levels of receptor availability and changes in availability caused by alterations in striatal dopamine concentration. When designing [C-11]RAC studies, it is important to understand what variables may affect the results. Here, we examined differences in baseline striatal [C-11]RAC binding

potential (BPND) under two different “”rest”" conditions. Thirteen subjects received [C-11]RAC scans. Eight subjects were aware prior to initiation of scanning that they would receive a “”baseline”" scan, and that no additional procedures would take place during the scan (“”certain rest”" group, CER). Five subjects were informed that they might or might not receive an IV alcohol infusion during the scan (“”uncertain rest”" group, UNC). This group was informed five min after scan start that they would not receive alcohol. Voxel-wise analyses of binding potential (BPND) images generated for both “”rest”" conditions indicated that receptor availability was higher in UNC than in CER. This result was confirmed by a region-of-interest analysis, which indicated that the average BPND in right and left putamen was statistically higher in UNC.

These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperat

These results demonstrate that dieldrin and lindane work cooperatively to

induce DA neurotoxicity through the induction of oxidative stress and mitochondria! dysfunction. These findings may advance understanding of the role of pesticides in the multi-factorial etiology of PD. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“In view of selleck products the low loads of beta human papillomaviruses in skin samples, amounts of cellular DNA used in qualitative PCR may become limiting for virus detection and introduce variations in prevalence and multiplicity. This issue was explored within the context of a multicentre study and increasing prevalence and multiplicity was found with increasing input amounts of cellular DNA extracted from hair bulbs. To improve the quality and comparability between different epidemiologic studies ideally equal amounts of cellular DNA should be employed. When cellular DNA input varies this should be clearly taken into account in assessing viral prevalence and multiplicity. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”

our environment, mammals (including humans) are exposed to various types of ionizing radiation and both persistent and non-persistent toxic chemicals. It is known that ionizing radiation, as well as methyl mercury, can induce neurotoxicological and neurobehavioural effects in mammals. These developmental neurotoxic effects can be seen following exposure during gestation. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the effects and consequences of low-dose exposure during critical Selumetinib clinical trial phases of pen natal and/or neonatal brain development, and of the combination of ionizing radiation and environmental chemicals. A recent study has indicated that low doses of ionizing radiation to the

human brain during infancy influence cognitive ability in adulthood. In the present study, 10-day old neonatal male NMRI mice were exposed to a single oral dose of MeHg (0.40 or 4.0 mg/kg bw). Four hours after the MeHg exposure the mice were subjected to (60)Co gamma-radiation on one occasion at doses of 0.2 and www.selleck.cn/products/gdc-0994.html 0.5 Gy. The animals were then subjected to a spontaneous behaviour test at 2 and 4 months, and a water maze test at the age of 5 months. Neither the single dose of MeHg (0.4 mg/kg bw) nor the radiation dose of 0.2 Gy affected their spontaneous behaviour, whereas the co-exposure to external gamma-radiation and MeHg caused developmental neurotoxic effects. The study shows that gamma-radiation and MeHg can interact and significantly exacerbate developmental neurotoxic effects, as manifested by disrupted spontaneous behaviour, lack of habituation, and impaired learning and memory functions. (C) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

07 vital genome copies/ml in one-step real-time RT-PCR or 7 x 10(

07 vital genome copies/ml in one-step real-time RT-PCR or 7 x 10(-16) viral genome copies/ml in a nested real-time PCR. WNV could be identified and typed in serum and brain specimens from a human and horse with neurological disease. To our knowledge, this is the first assay designed for the simultaneous detection and genotyping of WNV by rapid, sensitive real-time PCR which may be implemented in diagnostic and

epidemiology laboratories. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The present study investigated the course of visual searching to a target in a fixed location, using an emotional flanker task. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed the task. Emotional facial expressions selleck compound were used as emotion-eliciting triggers. The course of visual searching was analyzed through the emotional effects arising from these emotion-eliciting stimuli. The flanker stimuli showed effects at about 150-250 ms following the stimulus onset, while the effect of target stimuli showed effects at about 300-400 ms. The visual search sequence in an emotional flanker task moved from a whole overview to a specific target, even if the target always appeared at a known location. The processing sequence

was “”parallel”" in this task. The results supported the feature integration theory of visual search. (C) 2009 LY3039478 mw Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Four IgG(1K) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Influenza A/Chicken/Vietnam/8/2004 (H5N1) virus are described. Three of these showed neutralizing activities against H5N1 strains from clades 1. 2 and 3 using a retroviral pseudotype or live virus microneutralization assay. In the pseudotype assay, the IC(90) neutralizing titre range was >1600-51,200, and with the microneutralization was 80

> 10,240, MAb 1C1 showed strong neutralizing activities in both assays. All four mAbs reacted specifically to the immunogen by immunohistochemical staining and to A/Hong Kong/483/1997 (H5N1) and A/Thailand/1(KAN-1)/2004 (H5N1)-infected MDCK cells by immunofluorescence. Selleckchem SGC-CBP30 ELISA titrations of the mAbs showed specificity for H5N1 haemagglutinin (HA) and no cross-reactivity to 15 other Influenza A subtypes. Only mAbs 1C1 and the non-neutralizing 1F7 reacted with HA(1), the cleaved subunit of HA, by Western blot. These results suggest that the mAbs recognize distinct or overlapping epitopes and will be useful reagents for construction of specific rapid point-of-care assays or for therapeutic use. Crown Copyright (C) 2008 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a network model based on graph theory to measure functional connectivity of brain motor network in the resting state in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). FMRIs were acquired in 22 PD patients before and after levodopa administration, and in age- and sex-matched normal controls.

Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical fin

Clinical findings in these animals strongly resemble clinical findings in CRPS, and can be prevented by anticytokine and anti-neuropeptide treatment. In Dinaciclib in vivo CRPS patients, there is meanwhile also plenty of evidence that neurogenic inflammation contributes to clinical presentation. Increased cytokine production was demonstrated, as well as facilitated neurogenic inflammation.

Very recently even “”non-inflammatory”" signs of CRPS (hyperhidrosis, cold skin) have been linked to neuropeptide signaling. Surprisingly, there was even moderately increased neurogenic inflammation in unaffected body regions. This favors the possibility that CRPS patients share genetic similarities. The future search for genetic commonalities will help us to further

unravel the “”mystery”" CRPS. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Purpose: Functional and structural lesions of ureteral endings seem to alter the active valve mechanism of the ureterovesical junction, causing vesicoureteral reflux. The interaction of the dystroglycan complex with components of the extracellular matrix may have an important role in force transmission and sarcolemma protection, and the sarcoglycan complex is an essential component of the muscle membrane located dystroglycan complex. We performed immunofluorescence and molecular analysis on the expression of sarcoglycan complex subunits.

Materials and Methods: A total of 21 specimens of refluxing Staurosporine research buy Daporinad research buy ureteral endings were obtained during ureteral reimplantation. Six ureteral ends obtained during organ explantation were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analysis and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction evaluation were performed for

alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon-sarcoglycan complex.

Results: The Spearman test revealed a significant positive correlation between alpha-sarcoglyean complex immunofluorescence intensity and grade of vesicoureteral reflux, while a negative correlation was recorded between epsilon-sareoglyean complex immunofluorescence intensity and grade of vesicoureteral reflux.

Conclusions: Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated a significant grade related impairment of epsilon-sarcoglycan complex coupled with an increased expression of a-sarcoglyean complex. This observation suggests that the structural deficiency of the trigonal ureterovesical junction could cause a passive stretching of refluxing urine on the ureter, deranging the multimodular tensegrity architecture of the sarcoglycan subcomplex, or that the sarcoglycan complex could have a key role in the physiopathology of vesicoureteral reflux. In fact, the defect in any of the sarcoglycan complexes results in degeneration of membrane integrity and muscle fiber. An altered configuration of the sarcoglycan complex could explain the structural and functional changes in refluxing ureteral endings.

(J Vase Surg 2012;55:24-32 )”
“Benzodiazepines (BZs) are eff

(J Vase Surg 2012;55:24-32.)”
“Benzodiazepines (BZs) are effective anxiolytics and hypnotics, but their use is limited by unwanted side effects, such as motor impairment.

To assess the contribution of alpha 1 subunit-containing gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor subtypes to the motor-impairing effects of BZs, the present study evaluated two observable measures of motor coordination (balance on a pole, resistance to hind-limb flexion) engendered by nonselective and selective BZ-site agonists in squirrel monkeys.

Multiple doses of nonselective

BZs (triazolam, alprazolam, diazepam, and chlordiazepoxide) and alpha 1 subunit-preferring agonists (zolpidem and zaleplon) were administered to adult male squirrel monkeys (N = 4-6), and experimenters rated the monkey’s ability to balance on a horizontal pole (“”ataxic-like effects”"), as well as the degree of BI 2536 molecular weight resistance to hind-limb flexion (“”myorelaxant-like Navitoclax in vivo effects”").

Administration of all BZ-type drugs resulted in ataxic-like and myorelaxant-like effects. Pretreatment with the alpha 1 subunit-preferring antagonist beta-carboline-3-carboxylate-t-butyl ester (beta CCT) attenuated the ataxic-like effects engendered by both types of drugs. However, beta CCT was largely ineffective at blocking the ability of both BZs and non-BZs to induce myorelaxant-like effects.

These experiments demonstrate dose-dependent motor impairment

in squirrel monkeys using quantitative behavioral observation techniques. Altogether, these findings suggest a lack of a prominent role for alpha 1 subunit-containing receptors in the alteration of hind-limb flexion, a putative measure of myorelaxation, induced by BZ-type drugs in monkeys.”

the mammalian CNS, excessive release of glutamate and overactivation of glutamate receptors are responsible for the Tucidinostat clinical trial secondary (delayed) neuronal death following neuronal injury, including ischemia, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and epilepsy. Recent studies in mice showed a critical role for neuronal gap junctions in NMDA receptor-mediated excitotoxicity and ischemia-mediated neuronal death. Here, using controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult mice, as a model of TBI, and Fluoro-jade B staining for analysis of neuronal death, we set to determine whether neuronal gap junctions play a role in the CCI-mediated secondary neuronal death. We report that 24 h post-CCI, substantial neuronal death is detected in a number of brain regions outside the injury core, including the striatum. The striatal neuronal death is reduced both in wild-type mice by systemic administration of mefloquine (a relatively selective blocker of neuronal gap junctions) and in knockout mice lacking connexin 36 (neuronal gap junction protein). It is also reduced by inactivation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (with LY341495) which, as reported previously, control the rapid increase in neuronal gap junction coupling following different types of neuronal injury.

5-10 mg/kg, i p ; JNJ16567083)

Results In DNMTP task,

5-10 mg/kg, i.p.; JNJ16567083).

Results In DNMTP task, EMQMCM produced delay-dependent increases in performance accuracy so that, at 10 mg/kg dose level, percentage of correct lever choices was enhanced at 8- and 16-s delays. In DRL task, at all three

tested doses, response rates were higher, and reinforcement rates were lower than under control conditions. In signal duration discrimination tasks, EMQMCM did not have any specific effects on temporal control. In tolerance to delay of reward, EMQMCM (5 and 10 mg/kg) facilitated choice of the lever associated with large reward at longer delay levels.

Conclusions Blockade of mGlu1 receptors improves working memory and reduces impulsive choice at the doses that have no effects on time perception but appear to facilitate impulsive action.”

has been shown to impact on learning and memory in both humans and animals, https://www.selleckchem.com/products/Acadesine.html selleck chemicals but the downstream signaling mechanisms involved are poorly characterized. Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) is an adaptor protein that couples activation of insulin- and insulin- like growth factor-1 receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Here, we have deleted Irs2, either in the whole brain or selectively in the forebrain, using the nestin Cre- or D6 Cre-deleter mouse lines, respectively. We show that brain- and forebrain-specific Irs2 knockout mice have enhanced hippocampal spatial reference memory. Furthermore, NesCreIrs2KO mice

have enhanced spatial working memory and contextual- and cued-fear memory. Deletion of Irs2 in the brain also increases PSD-95 expression and the density of dendritic spines in RG7112 purchase hippocampal area CA1, possibly reflecting an increase in the number of excitatory synapses per neuron in the hippocampus that can become activated during memory formation. This increase in activated excitatory synapses might underlie the improved hippocampal memory formation observed in NesCreIrs2KO mice. Overall, these results suggest that Irs2 acts as a negative regulator on memory formation by restricting dendritic spine generation.”
“An increase in oxidative stress and overproduction of oxidizing reactive species plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several conditions encountered in the neurocritical care setting including: ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, traumatic brain injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, and organ failure. The presence of oxidative stress in these conditions is supported by a large body of pre-clinical and clinical studies, and provides a rationale to support a potential therapeutic role for antioxidants. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the basic mechanisms and molecular biology of oxidative stress, summarize its role in critically ill neurological patients, and review available data regarding the potential role of antioxidant strategies in neurocritical care and future directions.

“This study analyzes the relationship between extracellula

“This study analyzes the relationship between extracellular Cell Cycle inhibitor purines and pain perception in humans. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of purines and their metabolites were compared between patients displaying acute and/or chronic pain syndromes and control subjects. The CSF levels of IMP, inosine, guanosine and uric acid were significantly increased in the chronic pain group and correlated with pain severity (P<0.05). Patients displaying both chronic and acute pain presented similar changes in the CSF purines concentration (P<0.05). However, in the acute pain group, only CSF inosine and uric acid levels were

significantly increased (P<0.05). These findings suggest that purines, in special inosine, guanosine and uric acid, are associated with the spinal mechanisms underlying nociception. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background The monoclonal antibody trastuzumab has survival benefit when given with chemotherapy to patients with early,

operable, and metastatic breast cancer that has HER2 (also known as ERBB2) overexpression or amplification. We aimed to assess event-free survival in patients with HER2-positive locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy with or without 1 year of trastuzumab.

Methods We compared I year of treatment with trastuzumab (given as neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment; n=117) with no trastuzumab (118), in women with HER2-positive locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer treated with a neoadjuvant ARS-1620 research buy chemotherapy regimen consisting of doxorubicin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide,

methotrexate, and fluorouracil. Randomisation was done with a computer program and minimisation technique, taking account of geographical area, disease stage, Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor and hormone receptor status. investigators were informed of treatment allocation. A parallel cohort of 99 patients with HER2-negative disease was included and treated with the same chemotherapy regimen. Primary endpoint was event-free survival. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN86043495.

Findings Trastuzumab significantly improved event-free survival in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (3-year event-free survival, 71% [95% CI 61-78; n=36 events] with trastuzumab, vs 56% [46-65; n=51 events] without; hazard ratio 0.59 [95% CI 0.38-0.90]; p=0.013). Trastuzumab was well tolerated and, despite concurrent administration with doxorubicin, only two patients (2%) developed symptomatic cardiac failure. Both responded to cardiac drugs.

Interpretation The addition of neoadjuvant and adjuvant trastuzumab to neoadjuvant chemotherapy should be considered for women with HER2-positive locally advanced or inflammatory breast cancer to improve event-free survival, survival, and clinical and pathological turnout responses.”
“Quinolinic acid (QUIN)-induced toxicity is characterized by N-methyl-u-aspartate receptors over-activation, excitotoxicity and oxidative damage.

These new families were coined with the resolvins and protectins<

These new families were coined with the resolvins and protectins

because they possess potent bioactions and novel chemical structures. The AZD6738 mapping of these new resolution circuits has already provided new avenues for appreciating the molecular basis of many inflammatory diseases. This presentation/mini review gives recent advances from our studies on resolvin and protectin biosynthesis and the actions of these novel mediators. These previously unappreciated families of lipid-derived mediators were originally isolated from murine models of acute inflammation captured during the natural spontaneous resolution phase. They are biosynthesized from omega-3 fatty acids and possess potent anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and anti-fibrotic in vivo actions. These new families of endogenous pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory agonists were also used as biotemplates to design potent mimetics/analogs which were used to confirm each of their structures and specific functions. Moreover, together the identification of these mediators indicate that resolution is an active process at EPZ004777 concentration the tissue level in vivo as well as constitute

a new genus of anti-inflammatories with a previously unknown pro-resolving mechanism of

action. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Herbicides have been recognized check details as the main environmental factor associated with human neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease(PD). Previous studies indicated that the exposure to glyphosate, a widely used herbicide, is possibly linked to Parkinsonism, however the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We investigated the neurotoxic effects of glyphosate in differentiated PC12 cells and discovered that it inhibited viability of differentiated PC12 cells in dose-and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, the results showed that glyphosate induced cell death via autophagy pathways in addition to activating apoptotic pathways. Interestingly, deactivation of Beclin-1 gene attenuated both apoptosis and autophagy in glyphosate treated differentiated PC12 cells, suggesting that Beclin-1 gene is involved in the crosstalk between the two mechanisms. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“The influenza A virus NS1 protein contains a conserved 4-amino-acid-residue PDZ-ligand binding motif (PBM) at the carboxyl terminus that can function as a virulence determinant by targeting cellular PDZ proteins.

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative influence

The purpose of this study was to determine the relative influence of age-related changes in neural, muscular and tendinous properties on the ability to recovery balance from a forward leaning position using the ankle strategy. A computer simulation was developed selleck inhibitor which consisted of an inverted pendulum with one rotational degree of freedom controlled by two muscles representing the ankle joint plantar flexor (PF) and dorsi flexor (DF) muscle groups. Model parameter values were adjusted so that the isometric torque-angle relation was in agreement with experimental

ankle joint torque-angle curves From the literature. Muscle excitation was adjusted to match an experimentally determined maximum recoverable lean angle (MRLA) of 7.2 degrees (baseline condition). The effect of 20% alterations to maximum isometric force, optimum muscle fibre length, Selleck LCL161 maximum shortening velocity, tendon stiffness, reaction time delay (RTD), activation time constant and the maximum excitation of the PF muscles, and Maximum excitation of the DF muscles (co-activation) on MRLA was then assessed.The parameters that had the greatest influence on MRLA were maximum isometric force, the maximum excitation of the ankle joint PFs and RTD, which, respectively, resulted in 19.0%, 17.8% and 4.6% reductions in MRLA. Individual changes to other parameters influenced MRL-A by less

than 1.9%. When selected parameter values were adjusted in accordance with age-related changes reported in the literature, MRLA was reduced to 5.3 degrees, a value in relative agreement with experimental values reported in the literature (4.6 +/- 1.8 degrees). In general, these results suggest that MRLA is most sensitive to PF muscle mass and the ability to maximally activate the Us, and that the combined effect of all multiple changes in neural, muscular and tendinous parameters reported to occur with aging

can have a profound effect on the ability to recover balance from a forward fall using the ankle strategy. Crown Copyright (c) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A method for detailed description of the time-frequency characteristics of electroencephalogram during induction of anesthesia is proposed. The method, based on averaging of time-normalized smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distributions, is applied to data recorded from nine patients undergoing propofol anesthesia. An extensive representation of the frequency progression pattern related to the induction of anesthesia is given and the time-frequency characteristics that are consistent/not consistent between patients are determined. It is also illustrated how four different clinical end-points, generally used in the assessment of the depth of anesthesia, can be related to different phases of the frequency progression pattern.