Annual rates of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol testing differentially improved for beneficiaries with diabetes in the intervention group by 3.1 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-4.8 percentage points; P < .001) and for those with cardiovascular disease by 2.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.1-4.0 percentage points; P < .001), but performance on other quality measures did not differentially change.\n\nCONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The AQC was associated with lower spending for Medicare beneficiaries but not with consistently improved quality. Savings among Medicare
beneficiaries IWR-1-endo clinical trial and previously demonstrated savings among BCBS enrollees varied similarly across settings, services, and time, suggesting that organizational responses were associated with broad changes in patient care.”
“Background\n\nVaginismus is an involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles which makes sexual intercourse difficult or impossible. It is one of the more common female psychosexual problems. Various therapeutic strategies for vaginismus, such as sex therapy and desensitisation, have been proposed, and uncontrolled case series appear promising.\n\nObjectives\n\nTo assess the effects of different interventions for vaginismus.\n\nSearch methods\n\nWe searched the Cochrane Depression,
Anxiety and Neurosis Group’s Specialised Register (CCDANCTR-Studies and CCDANCTR-References) to August 2012. This register contains relevant randomised controlled trials NU7441 in vitro from: The Cochrane Library (all years), EMBASE (1974 to date), MEDLINE (1950 to date) and PsycINFO(1967 to date). We searched reference lists and conference abstracts. We contacted experts in the field regarding unpublished material.\n\nSelection criteria\n\nControlled trials comparing treatments for vaginismus with another treatment, a placebo treatment, treatment as usual or waiting list control.\n\nData collection and analysis\n\nThe review authors extracted data which we verified with the trial investigator where possible.\n\nMain results\n\nFive studies were included, of which four
with a total of 282 participants provided data. No meta-analysis was possible due to heterogeneity of comparisons within included studies as well as inadequate reporting of data. All studies were considered to be AG-881 price at either moderate or high risk of bias. The results of this systematic review indicate that there is no clinical or statistical difference between systematic desensitisation and any of the control interventions (either waiting list control, systematic desensitisation combined with group therapy or in vitro (with women under instruction by the therapist) desensitisation) for the treatment of vaginismus. The dropout rates were higher in the waiting list groups.\n\nAuthors’ conclusions\n\nA clinically relevant effect of systematic desensitisation when compared with any of the control interventions cannot be ruled out. None of the included trials compared other behaviour therapies ( e.
disc arthroplasty is an alternative surgery to standard cervical decompression and fusion for disc degeneration. Different types of cervical disc prosthesis are used in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic outcomes of cervical arthroplasty using the ProDisc-C prosthesis.\n\nMethods Radiographic evaluation, including static and dynamic flexion-extension lateral images, was performed at baseline and at final follow-up.\n\nResults Twenty six patients who had single-level ProDisc-C arthroplasty were followed selleck products up for a mean period of 63 months (56-76 months). The range of motion at the operated level was 9.3 degrees +/- 3.7 degrees at baseline and 7.3 degrees +/- 3.5 degrees at final follow-up, with a significant difference (P<0.05). Seventeen of 26 levels (65.4%) developed heterotopic ossification: three were classified as grade II, 13 were classified as grade III, and 1 as grade IV, according to McAfee’s classification. Forty nine adjacent segments were evaluated by lateral X-ray and 18 (36.7%) segments developed adjacent segment degenerations.\n\nConclusions ProDisc-C arthroplasty
had acceptable radiographic results at 5-year follow-up. The range of motion was preserved. However, more than 60% of the patients developed heterotopic ossification.”
“The protective influence of dietary components on diseases development is a topic of major interest. Identification of such dietary components, understanding Compound C PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitor of their mechanisms of action as well as their development and use in human diet are some of the objectives of selleck chemical functional food science. Inulin oligosaccharides are among the substrates considered as prebiotic for their non-digestible carbohydrate properties often found in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. There is convincing data to suggest that consumption of prebiotics such as inulin can modulate immunological parameters in gut-associated lymphoid tissues, microflora and may present potential health implications in protection against colon diseases.
This review shows the prebiotic properties, therapeutic potential and immunological aspects of inulin.”
“Duplication of MECP2 causes a recently described X-linked mental retardation syndrome, of which the typical features are infantile hypotonia, poor speech development, recurrent infections, epilepsy, and progressive spasticity. Recently, the associated seizure semiology and interictal EEG features have been increasingly described, whereas ictal electroclinical features remain poorly defined. We report the case of a boy carrying a maternally-inherited MECP2 duplication and describe the video-EEG sequence of a cluster of eating-induced spasms, the only epileptic manifestation of the patient. This report expands our knowledge of the epileptic phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome and may contribute to a better definition and comprehension of the electroclinical spectrum of patients affected by this disease.
Sensors and transducers signal to numerous downstream cellular effectors which function primarily by substrate posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation and ubiquitylation. In particular, the past several years
have provided important insight into the role of chromatin remodeling and histones-specific modifications to control DNA damage detection, signaling and repair. This review summarizes recently identified factors that influence this complex process and the repair of DNA DSBs in eukaryotic cells.”
“Background: Influenza is one of the oldest and deadliest infectious diseases known to man. Reassorted EPZ5676 purchase strains of the virus pose the greatest risk to both human and animal health and have been associated with all pandemics of the past century, with the possible exception of the 1918 pandemic, resulting in tens of millions of deaths. We have developed and tested new computer algorithms, FluShuffle and FluResort,
which enable reassorted viruses to be identified by the most rapid and direct means possible. These algorithms enable reassorted influenza, and other, viruses to be rapidly identified to allow prevention strategies and treatments to be more efficiently implemented.\n\nResults: The FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms were tested CH5424802 nmr with both experimental and simulated mass spectra of whole virus digests. FluShuffle considers different combinations of viral protein identities that match the mass spectral data using a Gibbs sampling algorithm employing a mixed protein Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. FluResort utilizes those identities to calculate the weighted distance of each across two or more different phylogenetic trees constructed through viral protein sequence alignments. Each weighted
mean distance value is normalized by conversion to a Z-score to establish a reassorted strain.\n\nConclusions: The new FluShuffle and FluResort algorithms can correctly identify the origins of influenza viral proteins and the number of reassortment events required to produce the strains from the high resolution Semaxanib inhibitor mass spectral data of whole virus proteolytic digestions. This has been demonstrated in the case of constructed vaccine strains as well as common human seasonal strains of the virus. The algorithms significantly improve the capability of the proteotyping approach to identify reassorted viruses that pose the greatest pandemic risk.”
“The emergence of an influenza pandemic is of great concern globally. It is, therefore, necessary to have a better understanding of the adaptation of influenza A viruses to humans. The mutation patterns affecting host tropism may provide information on the mechanisms and determinants of the host barrier. The work by Miotto et al.
One patient had a partial thyroidectomy following a suspected diagnosis of multi-nodular Z-DEVD-FMK goitre from US-FNAC. One patient required tracheostomy for airway management.\n\nConclusion:\n\nDiagnosis of TL may be difficult. However, US-FNAC is useful in raising the suspicion of a TL. Open biopsy is still the definitive diagnostic tool of choice. In the emergency setting of airway obstruction, once definitive diagnosis is achieved, dexamethasone therapy and endotracheal intubation for airway management are all that is required for optimal management strategy. Surgical intervention has no role except for providing tissue for diagnosis.”
“This work explores the possibility
of using the electrically charged spherical porous particle (SPP) to model the electrophoretic mobility of proteins
in the low charge regime. In this regard, the electrophoretic mobility expression of the charged SPP (HermansFujita model) is used and applied here to BSA and staphylococcal nuclease for different protocol pH values. The SPP is presented within the general framework of the spherical soft particle as described in the literature. Emricasan supplier The physicochemical conditions required to model proteins as SPP from their experimentally determined electrophoretic mobilities are established. It is shown that particle permeability and porosity and chain packing and friction fractal dimensions are relevant structural properties of proteins when hydrodynamic interaction between amino acid residues is
present. The charge regulation phenomenon of BSA and staphylococcal nuclease with pIs approximate to 5.71 and 9.63, respectively, is described through the SPP within a wide range of bulk pH values. These case studies illustrate when the average regulating pH of the protein domain is lower and higher than the protocol pH. Further research for using the general spherical soft particle is also proposed on the basis of results and main conclusions.”
“Focal degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is the first step in the invasion of cancer cells. MT1-MMP is a potent membrane proteinase employed by aggressive cancer cells. In our previous study, we reported that MT1-MMP was preferentially located selleck kinase inhibitor at membrane protrusions called invadopodia, where MT1-MMP underwent quick turnover. Our computer simulation and experiments showed that this quick turnover was essential for the degradation of ECM at invadopodia (Hoshino, D., et al., (2012) PLoS Comp. Biol., 8: e1002479). Here we report on characterization and analysis of the ECM-degrading activity of MT1-MMP, aiming at elucidating a possible reason for its repetitive insertion in the ECM degradation. First, in our computational model, we found a very narrow transient peak in the activity of MT1-MMP followed by steady state activity.
85%), which in order of significance were: shortage in matching erythrocyte units, shortage in anaesthetic/nursing staff and unavailability in operating rooms. The rest of the cases (39, 48.1%) were postponed due to medical reasons, which in descending order of significance were: respiratory infections and exacerbations of COPD,
cardiological problems, misregulation of antiplatelet/antithrombotic drugs and infections from other systems (gastrointestinal, urinary, etc.). Elderly male patients planned for major/oncologic surgery were most possible to have their operation postponed for medical reasons.\n\nDiscussion-Conclusions: Thoracic operations are postponed owed to organisatory as well as medical reasons, check details the latter mainly affecting Selleck BTK inhibitor elderly, morbid patients awaiting for major/oncologic surgery.”
“The aim of this brief review is to clarify
the role of melatonin in the production and preservation of mammalian gametes and embryos. Melatonin is an indoleamine synthesized from tryptophan in the pineal gland and other organs that operates as a hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis modulator and regulates the waxing and waning of seasonal reproductive competence in photoperiodic mammals. A major function of the melatonin rhythm is to transmit information about the length of the daily photoperiod to the circadian and circannual systems in order to provide time-of-day and time-of-year information, respectively, to the organism. Melatonin is also a powerful antioxidant and anti-apoptotic agent, which is due to its direct scavenging of toxic oxygen derivatives and its ability to reduce the formation of reactive species. Mammalian gametes and embryos are highly vulnerable to oxidative stress due to the
presence of high lipid levels; during artificial breeding procedures, these structures are exposed to dramatic changes in the microenvironment, which have a direct bearing on their function and viability. Free radicals influence www.selleckchem.com/products/ve-821.html the balance between oxidation-reduction reactions, disturb the transbilayer-phospholipid asymmetry of the plasma membrane and enhance lipid peroxidation. Melatonin, due to its amphiphilic nature, is undoubtedly useful in tissues by protecting them from free radical-mediated oxidative damage and cellular death. The supplementation of melatonin to semen extender or culture medium significantly improves sperm viability, oocyte competence and blastocyst development in vitro. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“The limiting sequence and relative ratio of lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), and threonine (Thr) for calves about 2 mo of age fed milk replacers (MR) containing soy protein are not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing MR containing 22% CP, half from soy protein concentrate (SPC, 40.56% CP, flour) and half from whey proteins, with Lys, Met, and Thr to estimate amino acid (AA) sequence and their relative ratio for calves about 2 mo of age.
\n\nMethods Four hundred and nine subjects from three countries with type 2 diabetes on stable insulin therapy were randomized to 26 weeks VS-4718 in vitro of double-blind treatment with once daily doses of 10 or 20 mg balaglitazone, 45 mg pioglitazone, or matching placebo (n >= 99 in each group).
The primary endpoint was the efficacy of balaglitazone 10 and 20 mg versus placebo on the absolute change in haemoglobin A(1c). Secondary endpoints included levels of fasting serum glucose, and changes in body composition and bone mineral density as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, in comparison to pioglitazone 45 mg. This study is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00515632.\n\nResults In the 10- and 20-mg balaglitazone groups, and in the 45-mg pioglitazone group, significant reductions in haemoglobin A(1c) levels were observed (-0.99, -1.11, and -1.22%, respectively; p < 0.0001) versus placebo. Fasting serum glucose was similarly reduced in all treatment arms. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry analyses
showed that, while balaglitazone at 10 mg caused weight gain and fluid retention compared to placebo, the magnitude QNZ molecular weight of these effects was significantly smaller than that of pioglitazone 45 mg and balaglitazone 20mg. Balaglitazone at either dose did not appear to reduce bone mineral density, while Pioglitazone showed a trend towards a reduction.\n\nConclusion Patients treated with balaglitazone at 10 mg and 20 mg and pioglitazone at 45 mg showed clinically meaningful improvements
in glucose levels and HbA(1c). With the 10 mg dose, the benefits (glucose & HgA(1c) lowering) and untoward effects (fluid and fat accumulation) were less, results that encourage further studies of this drug candidate. Copyright. (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.”
“This study investigates relationships between EMT and bone invasion by OSCC. Three OSCC cell lines, SCC25, HN5, and Tca8113 were artificially induced to display EMT by adding 5 ng/mL of TGF-beta 1 to culture media for 1-3 days. Cell morphology and phenotypic changes was Semaxanib supplier examined by immunocytochemical staining of CK and VIM. EMT markers, cell-invasion factors, and osteoclast-related molecules were analysed at mRNA, gelatine and protein levels by real-time PCR, gelatine zymography and Western blotting respectively. Mature osteoclasts differentiated from Raw264.7 cells were treated by conditioned medium (CM) of OSCC cells with/without TGF-beta 1. Immunohistochemistry was performed to validate proteins of CK, VIM, E-cad and Snail1 in OSCC tissue samples with bone invasion. Results showed minimal staining of VIM was found in SCC25 and HN5, while Tca8113 cells stained strongly. EMT markers Twist1 and N-cad were up-regulated; Snail1 and E-cad down-regulated in all cells.
(C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
study of some 4-substituted-2-aryl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one derivatives, designed as hA(3) adenosine receptor antagonists, is reported. The new compounds bear on the four-position different acylamino, sulfonylamino, benzylureido and benzyloxy moieties, which have also been combined with a para-methoxy group on the 2-phenyl ring or with a nitro residue at the six-position. Many derivatives show high hA(3) adenosine receptor affinities and selectivities both versus hA(1) and hA(2A) receptors. The observed structure-affinity relationships of this class of antagonists have been exhaustively rationalized using the recently published ligand-based homology modeling (LBHM) approach. The 17-AAG manufacturer selected 4-bismethanesulfonylamino-2-phenyl-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3a]quinoxalin-1-one (13), which Prexasertib shows high hA(3) affinity (K(i) = 5.5 nM) and selectivity versus hA(1), hA(2A) (both selectivity ratios > 1800) and hA(2B) (cAMP assay, IC(50) > 10,000 nM)
receptors, was tested in an in vitro rat model of cerebral ischemia, proving to be effective in preventing the failure of synaptic activity, induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation in the hippocampus, and in delaying the occurrence of anoxic depolarization. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Patients with borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) represent a high-risk group of patients due to tumor or patient-related GW4869 Apoptosis inhibitor characteristics. The optimal management of these patients has not been fully defined.\n\nAll patients undergoing evaluation
for PDA between 2005 and 2008 were identified. Clinical, radiographic, and pathological data were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were staged as borderline resectable using the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC) classification.\n\nA total of 170 patients with PDA were identified, 40 with borderline resectable disease. Of these, 34 borderline resectable patients (85%) completed neoadjuvant therapy and were restaged; pancreatic resection was completed in 16 patients (46%). Also, 8 patients completed 50 Gy of radiation in 28 fractions in 6 weeks, whereas 8 patients received 50 Gy in 20 fractions in 4 weeks plus chronomodulated capecitabine. An R0 resection was achieved in 12 of the 16 patients (75%). Also, 5 patients (63%) treated in 20 fractions had > 90% pathologic response versus 1 (13%) treated in 28 fractions (P < .05). Borderline resectable patients completing surgery had similar survival to patients with resectable disease who underwent surgery. Patients receiving accelerated fractionation radiation had improved survival compared with patients treated with standard fractionation protocol.
To characterize the dynamics of DNA synthesis opposite 5-OHC, we initiated a comparison of unmodified Tariquidar in vitro dCMP to 5-OHC, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC),
and 5-methylcytosine (5-MEC) in which these bases act as templates in the active site of RB69 gp43, a high-fidelity DNA polymerase sharing homology with human replicative DNA polymerases. This study presents the first crystal structure of any DNA polymerase binding this physiologically important premutagenic DNA lesion, showing that while dGMP is stabilized by 5-OHC through normal Watson Crick base pairing, incorporation of dAMP leads to unstacking and instability in the template. Furthermore, the electronegativity of the CS substituent appears to be important in the miscoding potential of these cytosine-like
templates. While dAMP is incorporated opposite 5-OHC similar to 5 times more efficiently than opposite unmodified dCMP, an elevated level of incorporation is also observed opposite 5-FC but not 5-MEC. Taken together, these data imply that the nonuniform templating by 5-OHC is due to weakened stacking capabilities, which allows dAMP incorporation to proceed in a manner similar to that observed opposite abasic sites.”
“Background: Enzyme activity is normally lost when formaldehyde is used as a reductant for silver staining after separation by electrophoresis. Hydrolytic activity of esterases can be examined on membranes without impairing enzyme activity when another reductant such as glucose is AZD2171 used for silver staining of the enzyme after separation by non-denaturing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and subsequent transfer.\n\nMethods: The hydrolysis of lipids in human high density lipoprotein (HDL) by
esterases first separated on a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane using non-denaturing 2-DE and silver stained using glucose as a reductant was examined.\n\nResults: Esterase activity was retained after glucose was used as a silver reductant for silver staining after separation using non-denaturing 2-DE. Lipids of HDL were removed by the esterases retained on the membrane after esterases were separated by 2-DE.\n\nConclusion: The results indicated that hydrolytic GSK1904529A in vivo enzyme activity is retained after separation, staining and immobilization. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Hypercapnia (elevated CO(2) levels) occurs as a consequence of poor alveolar ventilation and impairs alveolar fluid reabsorption (AFR) by promoting Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. We 123 studied the mechanisms regulating CO(2)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and alveolar epithelial dysfunction in rats. Elevated CO(2) levels caused a rapid activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in AECs, a key regulator of metabolic homeostasis.
Head lice control strategies and programs that address these negative emotional reactions may prove more effective than current biomedical focus.”
“Objective. This study investigated the effect of contingent electrical stimulation (CES) on present pain intensity (PI),
pressure pain threshold (PPT), and electromyographic events per hour of sleep (EMG/h) on probable bruxers with masticatory myofascial pain.\n\nStudy Design. The study enrolled 15 probable bruxers with masticatory myofascial pain in 3 phases: (1) baseline EMG/h recording, (2) biofeedback treatment using a CES paradigm (active group, n = 7) or inactive device (control group, n = 8), and (3) posttreatment EMG/h recording. PI and PPT were assessed after each phase. Analysis of variance models were used to compare results at a 5% significance level.\n\nResults. Patients in the active group had 35% lower EMG/h in IPI-145 clinical trial P2 and 38.4% lower EMG/h in P3, when compared with baseline. There were no differences in PI or PPT levels at any phase.\n\nConclusions. CES could reduce EMG
activity associated with sleep bruxism in patients with masticatory myofascial pain but did not influence perceived pain.”
“The phase diagram of the CuInSe2-CuGaSe2 www.selleckchem.com/ALK.html pseudobinary system was determined using a combination of special quasirandom structure approach, ab initio density functional theory calculations, and thermodynamic modelling. It is shown that the CuIn1-xGaxSe2 solution phase has a tendency to phase separation at low temperature. The calculated consolute temperature is 485 K. It is found that both the binodal and spinodal curves are significantly asymmetric and on both curves there are a local maximum and a local minimum, which have not been reported
in the 3 previous studies. Our phase diagram can well explain the finding that the inhomogeneity of CuIn0.25Ga0.75Se2 is higher than that of CuIn0.75Ga0.25Se2 at the same temperature, while the previous phase diagrams cannot. Hence, our phase diagram should be more reliable and applicable. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.”
“B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) proteins mediate intrinsic-, or mitochondrial-, 4EGI-1 in vivo initiated apoptosis. We have investigated the structure and function of the least characterized Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-B, solving the crystal structure of a Bcl-B: Bim complex to 1.9 angstrom resolution. Bcl-B is distinguished from other Bcl-2 family members through an insertion of an unstructured loop between helices alpha 5 and alpha 6. Probing Bcl-B interactions with Bcl-2 homology (BH) 3 motifs using a combination of biophysical- and cell-based assays revealed a unique BH3-only protein binding profile. Bcl-B has high-affinity interactions with Bim and Bik only. Our results not only delineate the mode of action of Bcl-B but also complete our understanding of the specific interactions between BH3-only proteins and their prosurvival Bcl-2 counterparts.
Eleven (29%) of them had an incomplete form of the disease. Coronary artery abnormalities were found in 10 (26%) children, insignificantly more often among those with incomplete KD. Each day of treatment delay increased the complication rate by almost 1.5 (OR 1.45, p = 0.009). Treatment initiated 10 days after the onset of the disease increased
this risk almost nine times (OR 8.99, p = 0.007). No significant differences in respect to age (p = 0.431), gender (p = 0.744) and laboratory test results were found between the groups with and without coronary complications. A complete regression of coronary artery involvement was seen in 7 children, and partial regression was seen in one child. One child died and another needed coronary artery bypass grafting. Conclusions: Coronary artery aneurysms developed at a similar rate in both complete and incomplete forms of KD and the only significant risk factor this website CP-456773 purchase was the timing of treatment initiation. In young children with
fever of unknown cause lasting longer than 5 days, echocardiography is warranted. Despite a tendency for coronary artery aneurysms to regress, late complications may occur and all children require long-term follow up in a 432 cardiology clinic.”
“Aims: This meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effects of common polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on the toxicity and clinical responses of irinotecan-based AZD7762 chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: The PubMed, CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases were searched from their inception through November 1st, 2013 without language
restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted with the use of the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. Seven clinical cohort studies with a total of 815 CRC patients met the inclusion criteria. Two common polymorphisms (677 C bigger than T and 1298A bigger than C) in the MTHFR gene were assessed. Results: The results from our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms might significantly decrease the rate of grade 3/4 toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.32-0.89, p=0.015). Furthermore, we also demonstrated that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms strongly correlated with good clinical responses (complete response+partial response) to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients (OR=1.47, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04, p=0.024). Conclusions: Our findings provide empirical evidence that MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may decrease the toxicity of irinotecan-based chemotherapy and increase the clinical benefits for CRC patients. Thus, MTHFR genetic polymorphisms may be screened to predict the clinical responses to irinotecan-based chemotherapy in CRC patients.